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Title: A study of the occurrence, formation and utility of fluid inclusions in crystals
Author: Ovens, Adam
ISNI:       0000 0004 2738 7639
Awarding Body: Keele University
Current Institution: Keele University
Date of Award: 2007
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The perfection of crystals at molecular and macromolecular scales is known to impact upon the properties and utility of these materials. While the formation of defect-free crystals is desirable for various applications; the utility of crystals which evidence particular imperfections has also been recognised. Fluid-filled inclusions (macroscopic crystal imperfections) have been exten§i-vely studied as phenomena '. in geological crystals but are significantly less understood in synthetic crystals. In this study, the processes which regulate the formation of inclusions within crystals were investigated using a number of different crystallisation methods and systems, including: hexamine, adipic acid, paracetamol and potassium chloride. The impact of various experimental parameters (including: supersaturation, seeding and the impact of chemical additives) upon the formation of fluid inclusions were investigated. Fluid inclusions were found in all systems investigated. In all cases the appearance of inclusions was defined by the equilibrium morphology of the host crystal, and their distribution was related to specific crystallographic parameters. Generally, the predictive formation of fluid inclusions could be achieved by regulating the interfacial supersaturation profile of a given crystal. This observation suggested that the inherent molecular roughness of specific lattice planes and the associated growth dynamics of that surface are critical factors in the processes of inclusion formation. Seeding experiments provided an insight into the adventitious formation of inclusions by particle aggregation; analysis revealed these to be of a different type to those formed using supersaturation control. In both cases, the . retention of the crystallisation solution within the inclusions was revealed by studies with probe chemicals. Further studies revealed that a range of chemical species could be constrained within the fluid-filled volume created by inclusions and that for labile chemical species, their activity could be preserved by encapsulation within these inclusions.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available