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Title: Polymorph prediction of organic (co-) crystal structures from a thermodynamic perspective
Author: Chan, Hin Chung Stephen
ISNI:       0000 0004 2734 0259
Awarding Body: University of Bradford
Current Institution: University of Bradford
Date of Award: 2012
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A molecule can crystallise in more than one crystal structure, a common phenomenon in organic compounds known as polymorphism. Different polymorphic forms may have significantly different physical properties, and a reliable prediction would be beneficial to the pharmaceutical industry. However, crystal structure prediction (CSP) based on the knowledge of the chemical structure had long been considered impossible. Previous failures of some CSP attempts led to speculation that the thermodynamic calculations in CSP methodologies failed to predict the kinetically favoured structures. Similarly, regarding the stabilities of co-crystals relative to their pure components, the results from lattice energy calculations and full CSP studies were inconclusive. In this thesis, these problems are addressed using the state-of-the-art CSP methodology implemented in the GRACE software. Firstly, it is shown that the low-energy predicted structures of four organic molecules, which have previously been considered difficult for CSP, correspond to their experimental structures. The possible outcomes of crystallisation can be reliably predicted by sufficiently accurate thermodynamic calculations. Then, the polymorphism of 5- chloroaspirin is investigated theoretically. The order of polymorph stability is predicted correctly and the isostructural relationships between a number of predicted structures and the experimental structures of other aspirin derivatives are established. Regarding the stabilities of co-crystals, 99 out of 102 co-crystals and salts of nicotinamide, isonicotinamide and picolinamide reported in the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) are found to be more stable than their corresponding co-formers. Finally, full CSP studies of two co-crystal systems are conducted to explain why the co-crystals are not easily obtained experimentally.
Supervisor: Leusen, Frank J. J.; Kendrick, John Sponsor: University of Bradford
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Density Functional Theory ; Computational chemistry ; Force field ; Crystal structure prediction ; Polymorph ; Crystal lattice energy ; Co-crystal structures ; Aspirin derivatives