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Title: Fabrication of hybrid inorganic and organic photovoltaic cells
Author: Black, David
ISNI:       0000 0004 2736 9983
Awarding Body: De Montfort University
Current Institution: De Montfort University
Date of Award: 2011
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The world’s energy demands are increasing annually, as a result of both an increasing population and increasing industrialisation. Photovoltaics offer one potential low carbon (in use if not in fabrication) method of generating electrical power. Traditional semiconductor devices have been used for over a century now and can be used for applications as varied as home use, grid power generation or in satellites in space. Organic photovoltaic devices are a relatively recent development which offers potentially low cost easy to fabricate devices that can be deposited on a variety of substrates. Organic photovoltaic devices are let down by their generally low efficiencies when compared to inorganic or conventional semiconductor devices. A method to increase the efficiency of these devices is to blend the best qualities of organic and inorganic materials into a hybrid solar cell. Two main groups of hybrid photovoltaic devices currently exist, the Grätzel Cell and some varieties of bulk heterojunction solar cells. It was decided to focus on bulk heterojunction cells for a variety of reasons of which the most important is ease of fabrication. Organic heterojunction photovoltaic devices with active layers comprising poly(3hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6, 6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) have been investigated by many research groups since the 1990s and offer the potential of flexible devices with a small number of steps in the fabrication process. These devices have not yet reached their full potential, but their efficiency is increasing year on year. This thesis demonstrates for the first time that, by fabricating hybrid heterojunction devices using ferroelectric nanostructures in the active layer, the characteristics of these hybrid devices show improvements when compared to control samples without ferroelectric nanoparticles. Electrical and spectroscopic measurements show that there are increases in the permittivity of the active layer, the absorption of photons in the visible spectrum, photoconductivity and in the overall relative efficiency of the devices. These effects have been demonstrated for both poly(3-hexylthiophene) and dihexylsexithiophene devices. In the P3HT devices with ferroelectric nanoparticles an almost fourfold increase in efficiency was demonstrated compared to the P3HT/PCBM control with power conversion efficiencies of 2.52% and 0.53% respectively.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: organic photovoltaic