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Title: Energy recovery system for a gyrotron backward wave oscillator
Author: Zhang, Liang
Awarding Body: University of Strathclyde
Current Institution: University of Strathclyde
Date of Award: 2012
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This thesis is based on the research project of a W-band gyrotron backward wave oscillator (gyro-BWO) using a helically corrugated waveguide which is currently being built and upgraded in the University of Strathclyde. The gyro-BWO was optimally designed through numerical simulations to achieve an output maximum power of ~ 10 kW with a -3 dB frequency tuning range of 84 - 104 GHz. To increase the overall efficiency of the W-band gyro-BWO, an energy recovery system of four-stage depressed collector was designed, numerically optimized and fabricated on the gyro-BWO. Microwave components including the Bragg reflectors, the side-wall coupler, the three-layer microwave window and the pillbox window were designed, simulated and measured to facilitate the practical use of the energy recovery system. This thesis includes the analytically calculated results, the numerical simulations as well as the experimental results of the said components and system. A 14-section Bragg reflector together with the side-wall coupler located at the upstream of the helically corrugated interaction cavity was used to couple the microwave radiation out. This allowed the installation of the depressed collector at the downstream side of the gyro-BWO. The transmission coefficient of the coupler was numerically optimized to achieve -1.0 dB over the frequency tuning range, from 84 - 104 GHz. The Bragg reflector measurement agrees well with the simulation. The input coupler achieves an average -13 dB reflection over the frequency in the measurement. Theoretical analysis of the pillbox type window and multi-layer window based on mode-matching method was carried out. The simulation and optimization of the pillbox window achieved a reflection of less than -15 dB in the whole operating frequency range of 84 - 104 GHz. The three-layer window can achieve less than 30 dB reflection in the frequency range of 84 - 104 GHz in the simulation. A three-layer window and a pillbox window which particularly optimized in frequency range of 90 - 100 GHz (the operating frequency range of the gyro- TW A that shares the same experimental setup as the gyro-BWO) were fabricated. With manufacturing constraints the design of the three-layer window achieved an average -10 dB measured reflection in 84 - 104 GHz and better than -15 dB in 90 - 100 GHz. In the downstream side of the gyro-BWO, another 18-section Bragg reflector was used to reflect the radiation back into the upstream interaction cavity. And the transmission coefficient of -30 dB was obtained in the microwave measurements using a VNA, which means the microwave power leakage was less than 1%. The measurement results agreed well with the simulations. A four-stage depressed collector was designed to recover the energy from the spent electrons. The 3D PlC code MAGIC and a genetic algorithm were used to simulate and optimize the geometry of the electrodes. Secondary electron emissions were simulated and a few emission models were compared to investigate their effects on the overall recovery efficiency and the backstreaming rate for the multistage collector. The optimization of the shape and dimensions of each stage of the collector using a genetic algorithm achieved an overall recovery efficiency of about 70%, with a minimized backstreaming rate of 4.9%. The heat distribution on the collector was calculated and the maximum heat density on the electrodes was 240W/cm2 and the generation of "hot spots" could be avoided. The electric field distribution inside the depressed collector was calculated and the geometries of these electrodes were properly shaped to avoid the voltage breakdown in vacuum.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available