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Title: Fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and endoscopy for tissue analysis
Author: Sauvage, Vincent
ISNI:       0000 0004 2732 2253
Awarding Body: Imperial College London
Current Institution: Imperial College London
Date of Award: 2013
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Biophotonics techniques are showing great potential for practical tissue diagnosis, capable of localised optical spectroscopy as well as wide field imaging. Many of those are generally based on the same concept: the spectral information they enable to acquire encloses clues on the tissue biochemistry and biostructure and these clues carry diagnostic information. Biophotonics techniques present the added advantage to incorporate easily miniaturisable hardware allowing several modalities to be set up on the same systems and authorizing their use during minimally invasive surgery (MIS) procedures. The work presented in this thesis aims to build on these advantages to design biophotonics instruments for tissue diagnosis. Fluorescence and diffuse reflectance, the two modalities of interest in this work, were implemented in their single point spectroscopic and imaging declinations. Two “platforms”, a spectroscopic probe setup and an optical imaging laparoscope, were built; they included either one of the two aforementioned modalities or the two of them together. The spectroscopic probe system was assembled to detect lesions in the digestive tract. In its first version, the setup included a dual laser illumination system to carry out an ex vivo fluorescence study of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) in the mouse model. Outcomes of the study demonstrated that healthy livers could be distinguished from NAFLD livers with high classification accuracy. Then, the same fluorescence probe inserted in a force adaptive robotic endoscope was applied on a fluorescence phantom and a liver specimen to prove the feasibility of recording spectra at multiple points with controlled scanning pattern and probe/sample pressure (known to affect the spectra shape). This approach proposed therefore a convincing method to perform intraoperative fluorescence measurements. The fluorescence setup was subsequently modified into a combined fluorescence/diffuse reflectance spectroscopic probe and demonstrated as an efficient method to separate normal and diseased tissue samples from the human gastrointestinal tract. Following the single point spectroscopy work, imaging studies were conducted with a spectrally resolved laparoscope. The system, featuring a CCD/filter wheel unit clipped on a traditional laparoscope was validated on fluorescence phantoms and employed in two experiments. The first one, building on the spectroscopy study of the gastrointestinal tract, was originally aimed at locating tumour in the oesophagus but a lack of tissue availability prevented us from doing so. The system design and validation on fluorophores phantoms were nevertheless described. In the second one, the underarm of a pig was imaged after injection of a nerve contrast agent in order to test the feasibility of in vivo nerve delineation. Fluorescence was detected from the region of interest but no clear contrast between the nerve and the surrounding muscle tissue could be detected. Finally, the fluorescence imaging laparoscope was modified into a hyperspectral reflectance imaging laparoscope to perform tissue vasculature studies. It was first characterized and tested on haemoglobin phantoms with varying concentrations and oxygen saturations and then employed in vivo to follow the haemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation temporal evolutions of a porcine intestine subsequently to the pig’s termination. A decrease in oxygen saturation was observed. The last experiment consisted in monitoring the tissue re-oxygenation of a rabbit uterus transplant on the recipient animal, a successful tissue re-perfusion after the graft was highlighted.
Supervisor: Yang, Guang-Zhong ; Elson, Dan Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral