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Title: The long-term effectiveness of efavirenz-based combination antiretroviral therapy : the impact of pharmacogenomics and pharmacokinetic interaction of artemisinin-based antimalarial therapy on efavirenz exposure among Ghanaian HIV-infected patients
Author: Sarfo, Fred Stephen
ISNI:       0000 0004 2731 1220
Awarding Body: Durham University
Current Institution: Durham University
Date of Award: 2013
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Introduction: In sub-Saharan Africa, HIV treatment is initiated with combination of antiretroviral medications comprising of a backbone of either stavudine or zidovudine plus lamivudine with a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of either efavirenz or nevirapine. Efavirenz is highly efficacious, durable and well tolerated. The risk for toxicity of efavirenz is determined by several factors including single nucleotide polymorphisms in the hepatic enzymes responsible for its metabolism and concurrently administered medications such as antimalarials, which share common metabolic pathways. The aims of this dissertation are to assess the long-term effectiveness of efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy and the impact of pharmogenomics and pharmacokinetic interactions of artemisinin-based antimalarial therapy on efavirenz exposure among Ghanaian HIV-infected patients. Methods: The effectiveness of efavirenz- compared with nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy was assessed retrospectively in nearly 4000 patients starting treatment between 2004 and 2010. The main outcome measure was a composite of toxicity, disease progression and attrition, and CD4 count changes. A prospective pharmacokinetic study of artesunate and efavirenz was conducted among 22 HIV-infected and 21 controls. Plasma efavirenz and artesunate/ dihydroartemisinin concentrations were measured using validated and standardised methods. Genotyping for single nucleotide polymorphisms in CYP2B6 G516T, T983C; CYP2A6*9B, UGT2B7*735 and *802 as well as CAR rs2307424 were performed for 800 patients with real-time polymerase chain reaction with allelic discrimination. Results: Antiretroviral therapy was associated with robust CD4 increases. Efavirenz was comparable with nevirapine in composite outcomes but better tolerated. Artesunate was well tolerated when administered to HIV-infected patients on efavirenz. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the CYP2B6 G516T and T983C were associated with increased plasma efavirenz concentrations. Conclusions/Recommendation: Among this Ghanaian cohort, both efavirenz and nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy were effective. The better tolerability of efavirenz compared with nevirapine means it can be safely used as the preferred first line non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor in sub-Saharan Africa.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available