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Title: Fusarium species in grains : dry matter losses, mycotoxin contamination and control strategies using ozone and chemical compounds
Author: Mylona, Kalliopi
ISNI:       0000 0004 2731 0105
Awarding Body: Cranfield University
Current Institution: Cranfield University
Date of Award: 2012
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This Project identified the relationships between storage conditions, dry matter losses (DMLs) caused by Fusarium species in cereal grains and mycotoxin contamination and assessed novel control strategies for post-harvest grain management including chemical control and ozone. F. graminearum, F. verticillioides and F. langsethiae were inoculated on wheat, maize and oats and stored under environmental conditions where marginal to optimum spoilage and mycotoxin contamination can occur. DMLs were calculated from the CO2 produced and were significantly correlated with deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisins (FUMs) and T-2 and HT-2 toxins respectively. Mycotoxin levels in wheat and maize exceeded the EU legislative limits with 0.9-1% DMLs. Therefore, CO2 monitoring during storage can indicate the level of contamination in a stored batch. Using CO2 production data at different water activity (aw) and temperature conditions, the environmental regimes at which F. langsethiae can grow and contaminate oats with T-2 and HT-2 toxins were identified for the first time. Five acids were examined in vitro and little effect was observed on Fusarium growth, in the aqueous form, while the effect on mycotoxin production varied. Dissolved in ethanol, adipic, fumaric and ferulic acids inhibited fungal growth and controlled DON and FUMs, but T-2 toxin was stimulated by the ethanol. Two garlic essential oils, propyl-propylthiosulfinate (PTS) and propyl propylthiosulfonate (PTSO) were studied for the first time. In vitro, 200 ppm reduced fungal growth (50-100%) and mycotoxin production by >90%. The efficacy was species-dependent. In naturally contaminated oats of 0.93 aw stored for 20 days, 16 ppm PTSO reduced T-2 and HT-2 toxins by 66% and ochratoxin A (OTA) by 88%, while 200 ppm PTS reduced OTA by 95%. In wheat, 100 ppm PTS reduced DON and ZEA and 300 ppm PTS reduced fumonisins by 40-80%. PTSO:PTS (1:1) at 400 and 600 ppm was very effective against DON and ZEA in wheat of 0.92 aw. Ozone (O3) exposure at 200 ppm for 30 min delayed Fusarium spore germination on media of 0.98 aw and inhibited germination at 0.94 aw. O3 was more effective against fungal spores than mycelium and little effect was observed on growing cultures. In vitro, mycotoxin production after exposure depended on the stage of life of the fungi. O3 reduced fungal populations in grains. Mycotoxin production in wet grains treated with 100-200 ppm O3 for 60 min and stored for up to 30 days was reduced or completely inhibited, depending on the species and the exposure system. Simultaneous drying of the grain due to the O3 passage was observed.
Supervisor: Magan, Naresh Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Wheat ; maize ; oats ; cereals ; F. graminearum ; F. verticillioides ; F. langsethiae ; post-harvest ; storage ; adipic ; tartaric ; fumaric ; trans-cinnamic ; ferulic ; PTSO ; PTS ; thiosulfinates ; thiosulfonates ; garlic ; essential oils ; fumigation ; food ; feed ; atmosphere ; headspace ; deoxynivalenol ; zearalenone ; nivalenol ; fumonisins ; T-2 ; HT-2 ; trichothecenes ; preservation ; silo ; quality ; safety ; legislative limits