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Title: Calpain-1 : investigating its role in murine neutrophils
Author: Ishak, Reezal
ISNI:       0000 0004 2734 1091
Awarding Body: Cardiff University
Current Institution: Cardiff University
Date of Award: 2012
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Neutrophils are phagocytic white blood cells which act as the first line of defence against entry of foreign microorganisms. Neutrophils are recruited to their target site through the process of spreading, extravasation and phagocytosis involving complex signal transduction within the cells, which might include the activation of the cytosolic Ca2+ activated protease, calpain-1. The work described here investigates the role of calpain-1 in regulating neutrophil functions such as spreading, trans-endothelial migration, chemotaxis, phagocytosis and Ca2+ signalling. Through the work done at European Mutant Mouse Archive (EMMA), Oxford, and by using intracellular sperm injection (ICSI) of calpain-1 deleted gene from mice generated in the USA, and with a selective genotype breeding programme, a colony of homozygous calpain-1 KO mouse has been generated in Cardiff. Homozygous calpain-1 KO neutrophils appeared to have a smaller surface spreading area and their recruitment into the peritoneal cavity of the mouse in vivo was disrupted. In vitro experiments showed significant defects in their ability to cross the ICAM-1 expressing endothelial cells in trans-endothelial migration assay. Disruption in this transmigration was only evident with ICAM-1 upregulated (TNF-treated) endothelial cells, suggesting a specific defect in the β2 integrin-ICAM-1 signalling process. Calpain-1 absence did not affect signal transduction as neutrophils were able to signal cytosolic Ca2+ in response to β2 integrin engagement (C3bi-opsonised zymosan) and also to release intracellular Ca2+ store upon IP3 uncaging. This showed that the IP3 pathway in the cells was not affected by knocking-out calpain-1 and continued to be functional. The key signalling mechanisms from β2 integrin also remained intact and this is consistent with calpain-1 activation by Ca2+ being an important event in trans-endothelial migration. In conclusion, calpain-1 absence has significantly affected the ability of neutrophils to undergo trans-endothelial migration and this effect is directed towards the event which happens downstream to the increase in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: QP Physiology ; R Medicine (General)