Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS:
Title: Evaluation of a community pharmacy based cardiovascular risk assessment service
Author: Waheedi, Salah
ISNI:       0000 0004 2732 6385
Awarding Body: Cardiff University
Current Institution: Cardiff University
Date of Award: 2011
Availability of Full Text:
Access from EThOS:
Access from Institution:
The aim of the study was to evaluate a community pharmacy-based cardiovascular risk assessment (VRA) service introduced into two pharmacies in south Wales. A longitudinal methodology was adopted where participants had an initial assessment with a follow-up after 12 months. Body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure and total/HDL cholesterol levels were measured and the Framingham 10-year cardiovascular risk was estimated and communicated to patients. Demographic details and lifestyle information (smoking, alcohol, diet and exercise) were obtained via self-complete questionnaires at each consultation. A total of 172 individuals accessed the service and had either a brief assessment (n=26) without the calculation of the Framingham score or a full VRA (n=146). Mean age was 60 years (±10.3), 59% were female and 25% (37/146) were at high risk (>20%) of developing cardiovascular disease. High satisfaction with the VRA was obtained via an anonymous questionnaire provided immediately after the initial consultation (74% response rate). The short-term outcomes of the service (including recall of advice, lifestyle improvement and/or making the visit to their GP if they were referred) were reported through a semi-structured telephone interview two weeks after the initial assessment. In total 105/172 (61%) who attended the twelve-month follow-up had results of the two assessments compared using paired Student’s t-test. There was a statistically significant increase in mean HDL 0.08 mmol/L (95% CI 0.02 to 0.14) and a statically significant reduction in mean systolic BP -8.5 mmHg (95% CI -11.0 to -5.9), diastolic BP -7.7 mmHg (95% CI -10.4 to -5.0) and Framingham score -1.07 (95% CI -1.9 to -0.2). A comparison between Framingham and QRISK2 algorithms showed the importance of using the most accurate tool available in estimating cardiovascular risk. This is the first study to investigate short- and longer-term outcomes of a community pharmacy-based VRA service in Wales and provides a basis for future research.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Q Science (General) ; RS Pharmacy and materia medica