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Title: Emissions of aggregated micro-generators
Author: Skarvelis-Kazakos, Spyros
ISNI:       0000 0004 2731 9767
Awarding Body: Cardiff University
Current Institution: Cardiff University
Date of Award: 2011
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The key question this thesis aims to address is to what extent can micro-generation sources contribute to the carbon emission reduction targets set by the UK government. The operational emissions of micro-CHP capable micro-generators were examined against the UK grid electricity and gas boiler heat. Fossil and biomass fuels were considered. The life-cycle emissions associated with the manufacturing, transport and disposal of micro-generators were calculated. Case studies were constructed, based on the literature. It was found that emissions associated with domestic electrical and thermal demand would be reduced significantly. A Virtual Power Plant (VPP) was defined for aggregating micro-generators, using micro-generation penetration projections for the year 2030 from the literature. An optimisation problem was described, where the goal was to minimise the VPP carbon emissions. The results show the amount of emissions that would potentially be reduced by managing an existing micro-generation portfolio in a VPP. An Environmental Virtual Power Plant (EVPP) was defined, for controlling micro-generator carbon emissions. A multi-agent system was designed. The principle of operation resembles an Emissions Trading Scheme. Emission allowances are traded by the micro-generators, in order to meet their emissions needs. Three EVPP control policies were identified. Fuzzy logic was utilised for the decision making processes. Simulations were performed to test the EVPP operation. The main benefit for the micro-generators is the ability to participate in markets from which they would normally be excluded due to their small size. The multi-agent system was verified experimentally using micro-generation sources installed in two laboratories, in Athens, Greece. Two days of experiments were performed. Results show that system emissions have been successfully controlled, since only small deviations between desired and actual emissions output were observed. It was found that Environmental Virtual Power Plant controllability increases significantly by increasing the number of participating micro-generators.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering