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Title: Incorporation of charterparty clauses into Bills of Lading
Author: Ozdel, Melis
ISNI:       0000 0004 2726 7987
Awarding Body: University of Southampton
Current Institution: University of Southampton
Date of Award: 2010
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Much has been said about the unfairness of binding bill of lading holders with the charterparty contracts, the copies of which are rarely provided together with the bills of lading. Besides, many people felt strongly that importing the provisions of an unseen contract creates a more risky international trade environment. Yet, it is an undeniable fact that incorporation clauses can make the holders subject to the charterparty provisions, even though the copies of these contracts are not shown to them. Nonetheless, since the early years, the issue of whether the charterparty terms are actually imported into a bill of lading has given rise to a great amount of litigation between the carriers and the holders. After a long line of judicial decisions given in this vein, it is now clear that for the charterparty clauses to be incorporated, both the bill of lading and the charterparty need to overcome a set of hurdles, which are popularly known as “the rules of incorporation”. It is equally clear that while these rules establish the formulas to incorporate, they also cause numerous discussions about their workability and longevity in the ever-changing shipping and international trade practice. In the meantime, the rules raise the questions of to what extent the holders are protected against the potential pitfalls arising from the incorporation clauses, and whether the solutions to the problems are adequate in terms of giving commercial efficacy to these clauses. In particular, the overall impact of the rules of incorporation forces all the concerned parties to ask one question: Is the glass half full or half empty? With a view to bringing these issues to light, this thesis thoroughly examines and compares the respective rules of incorporation adopted in English and U.S. law, which offer strikingly different methods to tackle the question of incorporation. In order to illustrate the impacts of the incorporation clauses on the contractual position of the bill of lading holders, the thesis looks at the incorporation of the particular charterparty clauses which have mostly given rise to disputes between the parties, such as forum selection, demurrage, fiost and similar clauses. Notably, the thesis discusses the viability of the incorporation rules in the wake of the new international movements concerning the unification of the laws governing the bills of lading. Finally, this study, inter alia, concludes that the trend is more receptive to the carriers’ imposition of monetary liabilities through the incorporation of charterparty terms than the enforcement of charterparty forum selection clauses.
Supervisor: Debattista, Charles Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: K Law (General)