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Title: Music in schools in England during the twentieth century
Author: Bentley, Eileen
ISNI:       0000 0004 2724 5278
Awarding Body: University of Manchester
Current Institution: University of Manchester
Date of Award: 1989
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This thesis traces the development of music in the school curriculum this century, with particular reference to the maintained sector of education. It demonstrates how the subject has expanded from being an activity almost exclusively concerned with the singing of songs, to become a discipline, which by the 1980's embraced instrumental work, musical appreciation, creative music making, examination work and electronic music. This research examines the process of development from the early days of the 20th Century when singing was the most important feature of school music. The significance of singing in school music lessons has been consistently acknowledged throughout the century by music educators, although as the years progressed the acquisition of other musical skills was considered essential. The work traces the gradual introduction of percussion bands, and eurhythmics during the early years of the century, a shifting emphasis to the appreciation movement in the 1930"s and the introduction of the radio and gramophone during this period. After 1944 instrumental tuition in schools became increasingly popular and during the 1950's and 1960's the emphasis again moved and focused on the developing creativity movement. During the 1970's and 1980's a number of current issues evolve and the impact of technology, G. C. S. E., the National Curriculum and the 1988 Education Act is examined. Thus can be seen the expansion of curriculum music this century and the way in which at various stages of this development different aspects of class music assumed greater or lesser significance. Despite this development, school'music has had apparent low esteem in many schools and has usually been amongst the first subjects to be sacrificed in order to make way for more academic areas of the curriculum. Any esteem which music has gained, has often been associated with extra curricular work either within school or at Masic Centres, and the growth of such musical activities has been considerable throughout the 20th Century. The thesis seeks to ask and answer a number of questions. Why has music had low esteem? Why has it so often suffered as a curriculum subject? How have various developments in our understanding of the learning process influenced music in the curriculum? What has been the impact of various Reports throughout the century and how have they viewed the importance of music as a curriculum subject? What has been the impact of certain educators in music this century? What has been the impact of the development of instrumental services and music centres during recent years? It is not within the scope of this work to examine music in the Private Sector or in specialist schools for children showing exceptional musical ability.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available