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Title: Production of biodiesel from used cooking oil (UCO) using ion exchange resins as catalysts
Author: Zainal-Abidin-Murad, Sumaiya
ISNI:       0000 0004 2724 1904
Awarding Body: Loughborough University
Current Institution: Loughborough University
Date of Award: 2012
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This study focuses on the development of novel two-stage esterification-transesterification synthesis of biodiesel from used cooking oil (UCO) using novel heterogeneous catalysts. The esterification of the UCO was investigated using three types of ion exchange resins catalysts including Purolite D5081, Purolite D5082 and Amberlyst 15. Of all the catalysts investigated, Purolite D5081 resin showed the best catalytic performance and was selected for further optimisation studies. From the optimisation study, it was found that the external and internal mass transfer resistance has negligible effect on the esterification reaction. At the optimum reaction conditions, Purolite D5081 achieved 92% conversion of FFA. During reusability study, the conversion of FFA dropped by 10% after each cycle and it was found that progressive pore blockage and sulphur leaching were dominant factors that decreased the catalytic performance of the Purolite D5081 catalyst. A kinetic modelling for FFA esterification was carried out using Purolite D5081 as a catalyst. Three types of kinetic models were investigated i.e. pseudo homogeneous (PH), Eley-Rideal (ER) and Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson (LHHW). Experimental data obtained from the batch kinetic studies was successfully represented by the PH model and a good agreement between experimental and calculated values was obtained. The activation energy for esterification and hydrolysis reaction was found to be 53 and 107 kJ/moL. The transesterification of pre-treated cooking oil (P-UCO) was investigated using various types of heterogeneous catalysts including Purolite CT-122, Purolite CT-169, Purolite CT-175, Purolite CT-275, Purolite D5081, Diaion PA306s and Cs-supported heteropolyacids catalysts. Of all the catalysts investigated, Diaion PA306s catalyst showed the highest conversion of triglycerides and was selected for further optimisation studies. At the optimum reaction conditions, Diaion PA306s achieved ca. 75% of triglycerides conversion. During the reusability study, Diaion PA306s catalyst gave a similar conversion of triglycerides after being reused once. Therefore, it was concluded that the resin can be used several times without losing catalytic activity. Several purification methods have been investigated and dry washing method was chosen as the best alternative for biodiesel purification.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Anion exchange resin ; Batch reactor ; Batch kinetic modelling ; Biodiesel ; Cation exchange resin ; Esterification ; Free fatty acids ; Heterogeneous catalysis ; Transesterification ; Catalyst reusability ; Triglycerides