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Title: Vertical variation in diffusion coefficient within sediments
Author: Chandler, I. D.
ISNI:       0000 0004 2725 8861
Awarding Body: University of Warwick
Current Institution: University of Warwick
Date of Award: 2012
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River ecosystems can be strongly in uenced by contaminants in the water column, in the pore water and attached to sediment particles. Current models [TGD, 2003] predict exposure to sediments based on equilibrium partitioning between dissolved and suspended-particle-sorbed phase in the water column despite numerous studies showing significant direct mass transfer across the sediment water interface. When exchange across the interface (hyporheic exchange) is included in modelling the diffusion coefficient is assumed to be constant with depth. The overall aims of this research were to quantify the vertical variation in diffusion coefficient below the sediment water interface and asses the use of a modified EROSIMESS-System (erosimeter) in the study of hyporheic exchange. The modified erosimeter and novel fibre optic uorometers measuring in-bed concentrations Rhodamine WT were employed in an experimental investigation. Five different diameter glass sphere beds (0.15 to 5.0mm) and five bed shear velocities (0.01 to 0.04m/s) allowed the vertical variation in diffusion coefficient to be quantified to a depth of 0.134m below the sediment water interface. The vertical variation in diffusion coefficient can be described using an exponential function that was found to be consistent for all the parameter combinations tested. This function, combined with the scaling relationship proposed by O'Connor and Harvey [2008] allows a prediction of the diffusion coefficient below the sediment water interface based on bed shear velocity, roughness height and permeability. 1D numerical diffusion model simulations using the exponential function compare favourably with the experimental data.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) (CASE/CNA/07/75) ; Unilever (Firm)
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: GB Physical geography ; TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)