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Title: Haemodynamic status and management of shock in children with severe febrile illness
Author: Akech, Samuel Owuor
ISNI:       0000 0004 2728 9190
Awarding Body: University of Oxford
Current Institution: University of Oxford
Date of Award: 2011
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Most in-hospital deaths secondary to infections in under-five deaths within sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) occur in the initial 24 hours of admission and shock has been identified as a major risk factor for the early deaths. However, controversies exist on the appropriate clinical diagnosis of shock, choice of ideal fluid for resuscitation (crystalloid or colloid), and safety of fluid resuscitation in severe malnutrition or severe malaria. This thesis investigates these aspects and also reviews the evidence base of current paediatric fluid resuscitation guidelines for children (aged >60 days and ≤12 years) with severe febrile illnesses. Capillary refill time >2 seconds, weak pulse volume, or bradycardia, in the presence of abnormal temperature and severe disease are predictive of impaired perfusion (defined by lactic acidosis) and death. Tachycardia and temperature gradient are neither associated with increased risk of death nor predictive of hypoperfusion. Existing international definitions of shock have low sensitivities (FEAST=44%, WHO=2%, and ACCM=59%) and high specificities (FEAST=82%, WHO=100%, and ACCM=66%) for diagnosis of impaired perfusion. Clinical criteria derived (called derived shock) had a sensitivity of 30% and specificity of 93%. Shock in children with severe febrile illnesses in Kilifi has a complex presentation but mainly presents with hyperdynamic circulation (high cardiac index) and vasodilatation. Cases with low cardiac index (myocardial dysfunction) are relatively rare but increase the risk of mortality when present. Synthetic colloids (gelofusine, hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (HES), and dextran 70) are safe for use in fluid resuscitation in children with severe malaria. However, HES is the most promising compared to other synthetic colloids concerns still remain about its renal safety. However, further evaluation of synthetic colloids for treatment of shock is not warranted due to the findings of FEAST trial. A Pilot trial shows that bolus isotonic fluids are safe, have better efficacy, and produce faster resolution of shock compared to low-sodium solutions at volumes and rates recommended by WHO in children with severe malnutrition. Evidence available from all ten the trials in children with sepsis show that fluid resuscitation using crystalloids and colloids result in similar survival. However, fluid bolus resuscitation results in increased mortality compared to no bolus (control) in children in SSA. This finding excludes children with gastroenteritis, trauma, burns, and malnutrition. Colloids are better than crystalloids for severe dengue shock but both have similar efficacy in moderate dengue shock.
Supervisor: Maitland, Kathryn ; Angus, Brian Sponsor: Wellcome Trust
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Infectious diseases ; Malaria ; Paediatrics ; Tropical medicine ; Epidemiology ; shock ; children ; fluids ; resuscitation ; volume expansion ; colloids ; management ; malaria ; malnutrition