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Title: The role of clinical pharmacy in the treatment of hypertension in the State of Kuwait : an analysis of the current treatment of hypertension in Kuwait and the role of the clinical pharmacist in advancing treatment strategies
Author: Al-Shammari, Ayed M. H. M.
ISNI:       0000 0004 2722 1583
Awarding Body: University of Bradford
Current Institution: University of Bradford
Date of Award: 2012
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The thesis investigated nicotine levels and their effects on hypertensive subjects and whether aspirin could be used in the treatment of hypertension to bring about not only an anti thrombotic effect but reduce the systemic blood pressure especially in those individuals who smoke cigarettes. The study, which also audits the use of aspirin, was conducted in Kuwait and so provides an insight of hypertensive patients very rarely considered in the literature The thesis begins in Chapter One with an extensive literature review which analyses the properties and problems that nicotine causes and its ability to cause hypertensive changes along with its multitude of other events. The physiological and pathological problems caused by nicotine are reviewed on the basis of its chemistry and pharmacological properties using a worldwide perspective rather than just focus on Kuwait. The second Chapter uses extensive analysis of the literature to determine the pharmacological properties of aspirin and its use in cardiovascular disease. The pharmacokinetics and therapeutic effects are presented with emphasis to its inhibitory effects on platelet activation which is central to the development of serious cardiovascular consequences such as stroke and myocardial infarction. The third Chapter returns to consider the literature in detail and why nicotine has specific effects on the cardiovascular system in terms of receptor stimulation and how aspirin may be able to reduce nicotine's cardiovascular effects and concludes with the Aims and Objectives of the thesis. The fourth Chapter investigates urinary nicotine levels in smokers from cigarettes available in Kuwait to indicate the actual levels which could be achieved by smokers in this study. This established that the levels would cause pharmacological effects demonstrating also the effects of passive smoking. The number of cigarettes smoked per day has an unpredictable effect on metabolism and urinary output of nicotine. The fifth Chapter is the major investigational section of the thesis and considers if aspirin ability to reduce cardiovascular effects, may be useful in terms of diastolic blood pressure and lipid levels in the 4 blood. The effects were suggestive that aspirin did reduce the blood pressure in hypertensive subjects but was not universal and was limited to those suffering from mild - moderate hypertension. It was determined that aspirin should be sued at the earliest age possible in these patients. The sixth Chapter involved a large scale trial of the effectiveness of aspirin treatment in hypertensive patients over a one year period in Kuwait. This used ambulatory blood pressure measurements to determine the effectiveness of daytime and nightime changes in blood pressure in patients with and without aspirin treatment. The overall conclusion was a reduced relative risk of suffering cardiovascular events in mild to moderate hypertension when aspirin (75mg/day) was administered. Specifically in smokers, aspirin lowers the systolic daytime BP and diastolic nightime BP. To support this work a comprehensive audit is provided of the use of the current use of aspirin in Kuwait hospitals.
Supervisor: Naylor, Ian. ; Naylor, Robert. Sponsor: Cultural Office in the Kuwait Embassy in London ; Civil Service Commission of Kuwait ; Assistant Under Secretary for the Drugs and Medical Supplied Affairs
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Kuwait ; Hospital pharmacy ; Treatment strategies for hypertension ; Hypertension ; Aspirin ; Smoking ; Nicotine ; Blood pressure