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Title: Monoclonal antibody (mAb) purification by counter current chromatography (CCC)
Author: Fernando, Samantha
ISNI:       0000 0004 2725 6209
Awarding Body: Brunel University
Current Institution: Brunel University
Date of Award: 2011
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Counter current chromatography (CCC) is a form of liquid liquid chromatography, which the Brunel Institute for Bioengineering (BIB) team have developed to process scale. In this thesis, its application has been successfully extended to the rapid, scalable purification of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) from mammalian cell culture, using aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) of inorganic salts and polymer. A polyethylene glycol (PEG) and sodium citrate system was found to be the most appropriate by robotic phase system selection. The search for an economical alternative to protein A HPLC is a substantial bioprocessing concern; in this work CCC has been investigated. Initial studies showed that unpredictably, despite separation from impurities being achieved, some loss in the IgG‘s ability to bind to Protein A was seen, as confirmed by Protein A BiaCore analysis. CCC machines were seen to adversely affect IgG functionality. This led to a systematic investigation of the effect of CCC phase mixing on IgG functionality in a number of different CCC instruments, allowing direct comparisons of modes of CCC (hydrodynamic and hydrostatic CCC) and their associated mixing (wave-like and cascade, respectively). The varying g forces produced within the CCC column were determined using a recently developed model to calculate g force range. The effect of interfacial tension was also studied using a custom built 'g' shaker. The optimum CCC mode was identified to be the non synchronous CCC, operated in a hydrodynamic mode but allowing bobbin to rotor speed (Pr ratio) to be controlled independently. In a normal synchronous J type centrifuge a Pr of 1 is fixed, this is where the bobbin and rotor speed are identical I.e. one bobbin rotation (where mixing occurs) to one rotor revolution (where settling occurs). Constraints were seen with this 1:1 ratio and the separation of mAb using ATPS. This work has shown with the use of the non synchronous CCC at a Pr of 0.33, mixing is reduced and rotor rotations increased. Consequently the associated g force range is decreased. Furthermore, by the extension of settling time, the clear separation of the mAb from impurities has been achieved with retention of biological activity. This thesis demonstrates the importance of settling time for ATPS in phase separation and documents the fundamental requirements for the successful separation of biologics. Purified non synchronous CCC samples have additionally undergone rigorous quality control testing at Lonza Biologics by their purification scientists. This work has ultimately showed that with optimisation, the non synchronous CCC can be used to produce biological samples that are of industry standard.
Supervisor: Garrard, I.; Allen, L. Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Protein ; Bioprocessing ; Aqueous two phase system ; Seperation ; Functionality