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Title: Rheumatic heart disease in Egypt
Author: Mohamed Kotit, Susy Natalia
ISNI:       0000 0004 2724 2309
Awarding Body: Imperial College London
Current Institution: Imperial College London
Date of Award: 2012
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Rheumatic Heart Disease remains one of the most neglected cardiac conditions in children and young adults around the world. The pathogenesis is complex and remains elusive, and the clinical characteristics vary around the world. This thesis concentrates on different aspects of the disease in Egypt, where it is known to have a high incidence. The methodology included epidemiological studies in school children in Aswan and investigation of RHD in a population with history of RF, using newly developed echocardiographic criteria. Concomitantly, the pattern of immune response in RF and RHD was determined in serum and excised valves. In this series RF presents in children and young adults, as well as adults, (0.2-44 years, 10.69 ± 6.24) with polyarthritis being the most common clinical presentation (87.9%) and recurrences of RF being very common (98.2%). RHD affected 23 in 1000 school children in Aswan with over 90% of the cases being subclinical and developed in up to 69.2% of the individuals with history of RF, predominantly as mitral regurgitation. Risk factors for the development and severity of RHD were shown to be low disease awareness, non-compliance to penicillin prophylaxis or a regimen of longer than 15-days. Resistance to antibiotic regimens, including Penicillin and Vancomicin seems to lead to development and recurrences of RF in Egypt. This series showed the presence of immune activation and ongoing immunological reaction in an apparently quiescent phase of the disease with distortion of normal valvular architecture, histology and composition. This work has served to define the epidemiology, pattern of disease, immune reponse and predisposing factors in a population with no previous data, also contributing to the improvement of the echocardiographic diagnostic criteria. Standardization of the criteria will allow comparison of prevalence in different areas and improve case detection.
Supervisor: Taylor, Patricia ; Yacoub, Magdi ; Takkenberg, Hanneke Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral