Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS:
Title: Improved performance of CaO-based sorbent for CO₂ capture
Author: Blamey, John
ISNI:       0000 0004 2724 0100
Awarding Body: Imperial College London
Current Institution: Imperial College London
Date of Award: 2012
Availability of Full Text:
Access from EThOS:
Access from Institution:
Calcium looping is a CO2 capture technology that is currently being developed on a 1 MWth pilot-scale. It has advantages including the ability to reclaim high-grade heat, the use of a relatively inexpensive, abundant and benign sorbent, and the potential to de-carbonise both power generation and cement manufacture. It makes use of the reversible carbonation of CaO to remove CO2 from a flue gas and provide pure CO2 for compression and storage, in a cyclical process. One aspect that is disadvantageous is the deactivation of CaO-sorbent upon cycling through reactive sintering; it is enhancement of sorbent that is examined here. Periodically hydrating sorbent, which can enhance sorbent performance by increasing reactive porosity, has been investigated: • Hydration conversion decreases following cycles of carbonation and calcination and at higher hydration temperatures. The latter has important consequences for the ability to reclaim high-grade heat from and reduce thermal cycling during the hydration process; • Particle breakage can occur upon hydration, which could be problematic for fluidised processes. This is more significant at lower hydration temperatures and for more highly sintered sorbents; • Direct carbonation of hydrated sorbent, rather than following a dehydration step, results in increased mechanical stability and increased reactivity to CO2; • Carbonation extent has an approximately linear relationship with prior hydration extent for equivalent carbonation methods; • A shrinking core model has been developed to describe the rate of reaction upon hydration. This successfully describes most data, but deviations are observed under conditions where pore blockage is likely. Enhancement of the performance of natural sorbent through surface doping with potassium compounds has also been investigated. KCl was found to enhance longterm conversion in the fluidised bed, with two mechanisms proposed: • Reduced friability of limestone, through KCl melt formation; • Increased carbonation rates in the slow solid-state diffusion phase.
Supervisor: Fennell, Paul ; Dugwell, Denis Sponsor: Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral