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Title: Deformation studies near hard particles in a superalloy
Author: Karamched, Phani Shashanka
ISNI:       0000 0004 2721 0040
Awarding Body: University of Oxford
Current Institution: University of Oxford
Date of Award: 2011
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Superalloys have performed well as blade and disc materials in turbine engines due to their exceptional elevated temperature strength, high resistance to creep, oxidation and corrosion as well as good fracture toughness. This study explores the use of a relatively new technique of strain measurement, high resolution electron backscatter diffraction (HR-EBSD) to measure local deformation fields. The heart of the HR-EBSD technique lies in comparing regions in EBSD patterns from a strained region of a sample to those in a pattern from an unstrained region. This method was applied to study the elastic strain fields and geometrically necessary dislocation density (GND density) distribution near hard carbide particles in a nickel-based superalloy MAR-M-002. Significant thermal strains were initially induced by thermal treatment, which included a final cooling from the ageing temperature of 870°C. Elastic strains were consistent with a compressive radial strain and tensile hoop strain that was expected as the matrix contracts around the carbide. The mismatch in thermal expansion coefficient of the carbide particles compared to that of the matrix was sufficient to have induced localized plastic deformation in the matrix leading to a GND density of 3 x 1013 m–2 in regions around the carbide. These measured elastic strain and GND densities have been used to help develop a crystal plasticity finite element model in another research group and some comparisons under thermal loading have also been examined. Three-point bending was then used to impose strain levels within the range ±12% across the height of a bend bar sample. GND measurements were then made at both carbide-containing and carbide-free regions at different heights across the bar. The average GND density increases with the magnitude of the imposed strain (both in tension and compression), and is markedly higher near the carbide particles. The higher GND densities near the carbides (order of 1014 per m2) are generated by the large strain gradients produced around the plastically rigid inclusion during monotonic mechanical deformation with some minor contribution from the pre-existing residual deformation from thermal loading. A method was developed of combining the local EBSD measurements with FE modelling to set the average residual strains within the mapped region even when a good strain free reference point was unavailable. Cyclic loading was then performed under four point loading to impose strain levels of about ±8% across the height of bend bar samples. Similar measurements as in the case of monotonic deformation were made at several interruptions to fatigue loading. Observations from the cyclic loading such as slip features, carbide cracking, GND density accumulation have been explored around carbide particles, at regions away from them and near a grain boundary.
Supervisor: Wilkinson, Angus J. Sponsor: Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Alloys ; Fatigue ; Materials modelling ; Metallurgy ; Nickel superalloys ; strain analysis ; high-resolution EBSD ; crystal plasticity finite element ; dislocation density