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Title: B cell and antibody responses to influenza A virus in human
Author: Huang, Kuan-Ying
ISNI:       0000 0004 2720 7837
Awarding Body: University of Oxford
Current Institution: University of Oxford
Date of Award: 2011
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Neutralising antibodies and antigen-specific B cells are important for protection against influenza A virus. However, the antigenic evolution of influenza A viruses has made a continuing challenge to the design of vaccine and the public health. The ability to generate cross-reactive response against influenza remains unclear in human. It is important to explore the antibody and B cell repertoire at single cell level. The pandemic H1N1 and seasonal influenza vaccine induced robust antibody response in adults. However, pre- or co-vaccination with the seasonal vaccine led to a significantly reduced antibody response to pandemic H1N1 virus. Whether this interference has impact on subsequent infection rates remains undetermined. There observed substantial cross-reactive antibody response upon vaccination, as measured by HI, MN and B cell ELISpot assays. The antibody recognizing conserved proteins could be the main component of cross-reactivity against influenza A strains and subtypes. A significant expansion of influenza-specific MBC was observed after infection. Crossreactive response was also noted in the MBC response. Importantly, a robust early-phase ASC response was detected in the peripheral blood upon influenza vaccination or infection. The size of ASC response significantly correlated with serum HI, MN and anti-HA IgG titre three weeks after vaccination. The sequence analysis revealed that early-phase ASC accumulated high level of somatic mutations on Ig variable region and affinity maturation, as well as anti-influenza mAb, which suggested their origin from pre-existing MBC. Eight anti-influenza mAb were made from early-phase ASC, including one high-titre virus-neutralising HA1-specific, two other HA1-specific, one cross-reactive HA2-specific, and four cross-reactive NP-specific antibodies, indicating of the broad diversity of ASC repertoire. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the properties of antibody and B cell responses to influenza A virus at serological, cellular and sequence level. The virus-neutralising and cross-reactive mAb derived from ASC could have therapeutic potential and their analysis might direct the vaccine design in the near future.
Supervisor: McMichael, Andrew ; Xu, Xiao-Ning Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Medical sciences ; Immunology ; Infectious diseases ; Influenza A virus ; B cell ; Monoclonal antibody