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Title: Novel chiral phosphonium ionic liquids as solvents and catalysts for cycloadditions : investigation of the Diels-Alder reaction of a series of dienes and dienophiles in novel chiral phosphonium ionic liquids
Author: Yu, Jianguo
ISNI:       0000 0004 2718 5340
Awarding Body: University of Bradford
Current Institution: University of Bradford
Date of Award: 2009
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The use of ionic liquids (ILs) as both reagents and solvents is widely recognised. ILs offer a number of advantages compared to regular molecular solvents. These advantages include: chemical and thermal stability, no measurable vapour pressure, no or lower toxicity, non-flammability, catalytic ability, high polarity and they can be recycled. There are a number of research groups investigating the various applications of this reaction medium and most studies have focused on solvents derived from the imidazolium cation. The use of the imidazolium-based ILs in the Diels-Alder reaction has been studied in detail and higher yields compared to conventional methods have been reported. The IL affects the rate and interesting selectivities have been observed. However, not much attention has been paid to the scope and limitations of phosphonium ILs (PILs). Therefore the focus of this thesis is the synthesis and application of novel chiral PILs as environmentally benign, task-specific solvents for the Diels-Alder reaction. In addition, this research seeks alternative ways to eliminate the use of toxic heavy metal catalysts and to exploit methodologies which reduce the energy consumption of the Diels-Alder reaction. A series of CILs were synthesised from the chiral pool and they were characterised by thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and spectroscopy. They were then investigated as solvents and catalysts in the Diels-Alder reactions of a series of dienes (cyclopentadiene, isoprene, 2,3-dimethylbuta-1,3-diene, furan, pyrrole, N-methyl pyrrole) and dienophiles (methyl acrylate, methyl vinyl ketone, acrylonitrile, dimethyl maleate, acrolein, dimethylacetylene dicarboxylate, maleic anhydride and maleimide). Investigation of the effect of PILs in the presence of three heterogeneous catalysts Al2O3, SiO2 and K-10 montmorillonite were studied. Ultrasound and microwave-assisted Diels-Alder reactions in the PILs, in the absence and presence of the catalysts, were also studied. The reactions of these prototypical substrates illustrated that the solvents are indeed task-specific.
Supervisor: Karodia, Nazira. Sponsor: University of Bradford
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Chiral phosphonium ionic liquids ; Diels-Alder reaction ; dienes and dienophiles ; Solvents and catalysts ; Cycloadditions