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Title: Cerebral haemodynamic control and carotid endarterectomy : comparison of general and locoregional anaesthesia
Author: Dellagrammaticas, Demosthenes
ISNI:       0000 0004 2719 0553
Awarding Body: University of Manchester
Current Institution: University of Manchester
Date of Award: 2012
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The role of CEA for stroke prevention in the presence of symptomatic carotid artery stenosis is well established. In order to maximize the benefit of surgery, several perioperative processes of care have been under scrutiny, of which one is the choice of anaesthetic method. The differing effects of GA vs. LA on the cerebral circulation after CEA may be of significance, since changes in the cerebral circulation post-CEA may give rise to cerebral hyperperfusion and intracerebral haemorrhage. This work assessed the effect of GA vs. LA on cerebral haemodynamic control after CEA using transcranial Doppler (TCD) techniques, and correlated these changes with serum markers of cerebral injury. Subjects undergoing CEA had perioperative TCD monitoring of middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAV). Pre- and postoperative (within 48 hours of surgery) testing of cerebral autoregulation [CA] (tilt-testing) and cerebral vasoreactivity to CO2 [CVR] (rebreathing expired air) was conducted. Cerebral haemodynamic parameters and clinical outcome were correlated with changes in jugular venous and peripheral levels of protein S100β and neurone-specific enolase (NSE).The change in CA and CVR was not different between GA (n=16) and LA (n=20). Overall, CA and CVR improved significantly within 48 hours of CEA for patients with preoperative impairment of these parameters, although some patients with normal baseline CA and CVR exhibited postoperative impairment. Increase of MCAV >100% from baseline after restoration of carotid blood flow was observed in patients with impaired CVR, but resolved by the first postoperative day. Transient elevation in jugular venous (but not peripheral) S100β during surgery was seen. Both jugular and peripheral NSE levels dropped during surgery. Neither anaesthetic method nor CA or CVR status had any effect on changes in serum S100β or NSE. Cerebral autoregulatory parameters thus improve rapidly after CEA, but appear unaffected by anaesthetic technique. This supports the concept that cerebral hyperperfusion is dependent on factors in addition to impaired CA or CVR. Changes in serum S100β or NSE do not reflect cerebral haemodynamic changes. However, the variability encountered between patients warrants further investigation. The implications for clinical practice and directions for further research are discussed.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Professor Michael J Gough ; Leeds Vascular Institute ; The General Infirmary at Leeds ; Leeds LS1 3EX
Qualification Name: Thesis (M.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Carotid endarterectomy ; General anaesthesia ; Local anaesthesia ; Cerebral autoregulation ; Protein S100 ; Neurone-specific enolase