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Title: The effect of consumption of dairy products in the diet, on appetite and BMI in humans
Author: Dougkas, Anestis
ISNI:       0000 0004 2716 8268
Awarding Body: University of Reading
Current Institution: University of Reading
Date of Award: 2011
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As the incidence of obesity reaches 'epidemic' proportions, there is currently widespread interest in the impact of dietary components on body weight and food intake. Available evidence from epidemiological and intervention studies suggest a negative but modest relationship between milk product consumption and measures of adiposity. The purported physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying the impact of dairy constituents on adiposity are incompletely understood but may include effects on lipolysis, lipogenesis and fat absorption. The relationships between type of dairy products and adiposity were analysed using data derived from the Caerphilly Cohort. Results indicated that most of the positive effect is due to milk, with the body mass index of high milk consumers (>568ml/d) being less than non-milk consumers. There 'is a paucity of evidence regarding the effect of increased milk consumption or the effect of different types of milk products on appetite and overall energy intake. A cross-over study in forty overweight men was conducted, which examined the effect of consumption of individual milk products as snacks on appetite (Visual analogue scale scores) and subsequent ad libitum meal energy intake. Results showed that among the milk products, yoghurt had the greatest impact on suppression of appetite. Hunger ratings were 8%, 10% and 24% (P<0.001) lower after intake of yoghurt compared with intake of cheese, milk and water respectively, although there were no differences in energy intake. The diversity of responses to nutritional interventions could be partly explained by genetic variation. Therefore, relationships between appetite ratings derived from the cross-over study and particular genetic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in men were examined. Results suggested a role of specific SNPs in the rs9939609 (FTO) and leptin genes on satiety. Further human trials are required to investigate whether milk and its constituents have an effect on appetite regulation, and as a consequence on subsequent energy intake, and to establish responsiveness in population subgroups.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available