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Title: Responding to terrorism : United States counterterrorism from 1968
Author: Gallagher, Anne
Awarding Body: University of Ulster
Current Institution: Ulster University
Date of Award: 2010
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Following the attacks of September 11, 2001, President Bush had to construct a response that would reflect the anger felt around the world toward the perpetrators, and in equal measure appease the domestic need in the United States for retribution. Such a response would impact on successive administrations and generations alike. This research examines the policies pursued by the Bush administration in response to September 11, in the context of the policy choices of Presidential administrations of the past. It compiles a historical chronology of polices implemented in response to attacks against Untied States citizens or interests, from the birth of international terrorism in 1968. Current writing on the topic focuses predominantly on the 'war on terror 'and the implications for international relations and international law, among other considerations. The key writings on this specific topic, the history of counter terrorism, tend to come from a national security or political science approach, with only selected works using history to assess the present. In order to study this history, archival research was conducted at the National Security Archive in Washington, the National Archive and Records Administration at College Park, MD, and the Ronald Reagan Library in Simi Valley, California. Interviews were conducted with Professor Noam Chomsky, Professor Bruce Hoffinan and Professor James Goldgeier, in addition to the consultation of secondary source material. The conclusions reached demonstrate the importance of consulting history in formulating policy for national security threats of today. The lessons that can be taken from the responses of the administrations of Presidents Nixon, Carter, Reagan and Clinton, centre on the futile use of military action as the predominant policy when attempting to combat international terrorism. They reflect the need for a greater depth of understanding of the ideology that drives individuals to adopt terrorist tactics and the forces that conspire to promote such action. This need is heightened by the United State actions in Afghanistan and Iraq.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available