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Title: Dysfunction of contractile proteins in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Author: Bayliss, Christopher Richard
ISNI:       0000 0004 2715 0295
Awarding Body: Imperial College London
Current Institution: Imperial College London
Date of Award: 2012
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The contractility of human heart samples from patients diagnosed with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were studied using a quantitative in vitro motility assay. The aim of this work was to investigate the molecular phenotype of thin filament proteins in the HCM heart. Three biopsy samples with thin filament mutations were studied alongside samples acquired from a subset of HCM patients classified with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. The primary effect of thin filament mutations was investigated by reconstituting Factin with ACTC E99K into thin filament with donor troponin. The E99K actin filaments had a higher Ca2+-sensitivity then filaments composed of donor F-actin (with no mutation) (EC50 E99K/donor 0.78±0.14, p=0.02). A similar higher Ca2+- sensitivity was found when recombinant TnT K273N was incorporated into donor troponin and compared to native donor troponin (EC50 K273N/donor 0.54±0.17, p=0.006). Troponin was also purified from HOCM heart samples. This troponin did not contain a causative mutation but behaved abnormally in the response of thin filament Ca2+- sensitivity to changes in TnI phosphorylation (EC50 PKA-HOCM/HOCM 1.08±0.25, p=0.3) as mean TnI phosphorylation of PKA-HOCM was 1.56 molsPi/molsTnI and HOCM was 0.29 molsPi/molsTnI. Thus, thin filament Ca2+-sensitivity was uncoupled from TnI phosphorylation in thin filaments with HOCM troponin. When the native TnT subunits were replaced with recombinant TnT this coupling was restored (EC50 HOCM rTnT/HOCM 0.63±0.26, p=0.03). It would appear that the result of HCM-causing mutations are two-fold. The primary effect of the HCM-causing mutations is to increase thin filament Ca2+-sensitivity. However, the contraction machinery appears to be the target of secondary modifications, that occur due to the pathology of the disease. Resulting in further changes, such as changes in protein composition and post-translational modification. One major consequence of these modifications may be to uncouple the relatively labile regulation of thin filament Ca2+-sensitivity by TnI phosphorylation.
Supervisor: Marston, Steve ; Gallon, Clare Sponsor: Foundation of the National Heart and Lung Institute ; British Heart Foundation
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral