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Title: Cellulose nanowhiskers for tissue engineering skeletal muscle
Author: Dugan, James Michael
ISNI:       0000 0004 2714 5234
Awarding Body: University of Manchester
Current Institution: University of Manchester
Date of Award: 2012
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Cellulose nanowhiskers (CNWs) are high aspect ratio rod-like nanoparticles with diameters on the order of a few nanometers. For the very first time CNWs are demonstrated as a useful material for guided tissue engineering. Due to their nanoscale dimensions and high aspect ratio, highly oriented spin coated surfaces of CNWs are shown to direct the morphology and terminal differentiation of myoblasts, allowing the culture of skeletal muscle-like tissue with a more physiologically relevant structure.CNWs are prepared from cellulose extracted from the tunicate Ascidiella sp. using acid hydrolysis to prepare high aspect ratio particles with diameters of approximately 5 to 6 nm. A spin coating method is used to prepare sparsely adsorbed sub-monolayers of CNWs with a high degree of relative orientation. The surfaces have a mean feature height of only 5.5 nm and the degree of CNW adsorption and orientation is modulated by altering the preparation procedure. When C2C12 myoblasts are seeded to the surfaces, the cells adopt highly oriented morphologies induced by the CNWs via contact guidance. This is a demonstration of contact guidance on some of the smallest topographical features ever reported. Furthermore, the highly oriented CNWs promote fusion and terminal differentiation of the myoblasts to form multinucleated myotubes with a striking degree of parallel orientation.CNW surfaces are also shown to support the adhesion and spreading of human mesenchymal stem cells, inducing the adoption of highly oriented cell morphologies. The ability of hMSCs to undergo cell fusion with C2C12 myotubes highlights the great potential for tissue engineering human skeletal muscle, using CNWs to direct the structure of the tissue. The bioactivity and low cytotoxicity of CNWs, coupled with their low cost and simple production procedure, indicates that CNWs will be a useful material for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
Supervisor: Eichhorn, Stephen ; Gough, Julie Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Cellulose Nanowhiskers ; Tissue Engineering ; Skeletal Muscle ; Nanotopography ; Myotubes ; Mesenchymal Stem Cells