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Title: Assessment of residual stress using thermoelastic stress analysis
Author: Robinson, Andrew Ferrand
ISNI:       0000 0004 2715 8924
Awarding Body: University of Southampton
Current Institution: University of Southampton
Date of Award: 2011
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The work described in this thesis considers the application of thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) to the assessment of residual stresses in metallic materials. Residual stresses exist within almost all engineering components and structures. They are an unavoidable consequence of manufacturing processes and may cause the premature and catastrophic failure of a component when coupled with in-service stresses. Alternatively, beneficial residual stress may be introduced to enhance the component performance. Greater knowledge of residual stress and its evolution, will not only provide an opportunity to improve component manufacture and design, but may allow the potential life extension of current structures beyond their design life. Techniques for measuring residual stresses can be divided into two main groups. Destructive methods involve removing material, measuring the mechanical strain relaxation and back calculating the residual stress. These techniques are generally cheaper and more portable, but are not appropriate in many circumstances due to modification and damage to the component. Non-destructive techniques do not damage the component, but are typically more expensive, less portable and can require complicated calibration procedures to correctly interpret results. TSA is a well established non-contacting experimental stress analysis technique that is quick and portable, and the presence of residual stress is known to modify the thermoelastic response. However, this change is very small and of the order of the noise threshold and resolution of currently available infra-red detectors. Several methods for identifying residual stresses from the thermoelastic response have been suggested and are further explored in this thesis. Significant attention is given to the effect of plastic deformation on the thermoelastic constant, and the influence of the mean stress on the thermoelastic response in stainless steel and aluminium. An investigation of the experimental setup is undertaken to optimise the detector settings, maximise the thermoelastic signal and minimise measurement errors. For metallic materials, a paint coating is typically required which may attenuate the response. A study of coating characteristics is presented, which compares the experimental and theoretical thermoelastic response. The importance of the coating is highlighted and recommendations for appropriate conditions are provided. The overall feasibility of applying a TSA based approach to residual stress assessment is considered by examining residual stresses around cold expanded holes in aluminium plate. Changes in the response are identified and attributed to the presence of residual stress. Laboratory X-ray diffraction is used to provide residual stress measurements. These are incorporated into a model of the thermoelastic response providing good agreement between experimental data and theoretical predictions within the region of interest. The potential for TSA to identify residual stress is demonstrated, and the study thereby represents a significant step towards understanding the role of TSA within the field of residual stress.
Supervisor: Barton, Janice Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)