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Title: Enhancing the efficacy of viral vector blood-stage malaria vaccines
Author: Forbes, Emily K.
ISNI:       0000 0004 2717 3403
Awarding Body: University of Oxford
Current Institution: University of Oxford
Date of Award: 2011
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Replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vectors expressing single Plasmodium falciparum antigens can induce potent T cell and antibody responses and have entered clinical testing using a heterologous prime-boost immunisation approach (Ad_MVA). This thesis describes a number of pre-clinical approaches aimed at enhancing the efficacy of these viral vectored vaccines targeting the blood-stage of malaria. First, the development of a highly efficacious malaria vaccine is likely to require a multi-antigen and/or multi-stage subunit vaccine. The utility of an Ad_MVA immunisation regime combining vaccines expressing the 42kDa C-terminus of the blood- stage antigen merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP142) and the pre-erythrocytic antigen circumsporozoite protein (CSP) in the P. yoelii mouse model was investigated. It was found that vaccine co- administration leads to maintained antibody responses and efficacy against blood-stage infection, but reduced secondary CD8+ T cell responses and efficacy against liver-stage infection. CD8+ T cell interference can be minimised by co-administering the MVA vaccines at separate sites, resulting in enhanced liver-stage efficacy. The mechanisms of CD8+ T cell interference were explored. Second, Ad_MVA regimes expressing blood-stage antigens that can protect against P. chabaudi and P. yoelii blood-stage infection were tested against P. berghei, but did not confer protection. Similarly, IgG from rabbits immunised against P. falciparum MSP1 (PfMSP1) could not protect mice from a chimeric P. berghei parasite expressing PfMSP1. Third, two molecular adjuvants, the C4bp α-chain oligomerisation domain (IMX108/313) and the Fc fragment of murine IgG2a, were tested for their ability to enhance immunogenicity of recombinant adenoviruses when fused at the C-terminus of a blood-stage antigen. IMX108/313 was found to adjuvant T cell responses of small (< 80kDa) antigens and this was associated with antigen oligomerisation. However, the Fc fragment did not adjuvant responses. Finally, it was found that using a strong early promoter to drive antigen expression enhances the immunogenicity of single administration MVA vaccines, but that this did not enhance post-boost immunogenicity in an Ad_MVA regime.
Supervisor: Hill, Adrian V. S. ; Draper, Simon J. Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Malaria ; Clinical laboratory sciences ; Vaccinology ; Parasitology ; Infectious diseases ; Immunology ; Malaria ; adenovirus ; IFNg ; TNFa ; mice ; Plasmodium yoelii ; Plasmodium berghei