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Title: Formulation of topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents
Author: Elias, Amer N.
ISNI:       0000 0001 3444 1195
Awarding Body: University of Aston in Birmingham
Current Institution: Aston University
Date of Award: 1987
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Reversed-pahse high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods were developed for the assay of indomethacin, its decomposition products, ibuprofen and its (tetrahydro-2-furanyl)methyl-, (tetrahydro-2-(2H)pyranyl)methyl- and cyclohexylmethyl esters. The development and application of these HPLC systems were studied. A number of physico-chemical parameters that affect percutaneous absorption were investigated. The pKa values of indomethacin and ibuprofen were determined using the solubility method. Potentiometric titration and the Taft equation were also used for ibuprofen. The incorporation of ethanol or propylene glycol in the solvent resulted in an improvement in the aqueous solubility of these compounds. The partition coefficients were evaluated in order to establish the affinity of these drugs towards the stratum corneum. The stability of indomethacin and of ibuprofen esters were investigated and the effect of temperature and pH on the decomposition rates were studied. The effect of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide on the alkaline degradation of indomethacin was also followed. In the presence of alcohol, indomethacin alcoholysis was observed and the kinetics of decomposition were subjected to non-linear regression analysis and the rate constants for the various pathways were quantified. The non-isothermal, sufactant non-isoconcentration and non-isopH degradation of indomethacin were investigated. The analysis of the data was undertaken using NONISO, a BASIC computer program. The degradation profiles obtained from both non-iso and iso-kinetic studies show that there is close concordance in the results. The metabolic biotransformation of ibuprofen esters was followed using esterases from hog liver and rat skin homogenates. The results showed that the esters were very labile under these conditions. The presence of propylene glycol affected the rates of enzymic hydrolysis of the ester. The hydrolysis is modelled using an equation involving the dielectric constant of the medium. The percutaneous absorption of indomethacin and of ibuprofen and its esters was followed from solutions using an in vitro excised human skin model. The absorption profiles followed first order kinetics. The diffusion process was related to their solubility and to the human skin/solvent partition coefficient. The percutaneous absorption of two ibuprofen esters from suspensions in 20% propylene glycol-water were also followed through rat skin with only ibuprofen being detected in the receiver phase. The sensitivity of ibuprofen esters to enzymic hydrolysis compared to the chemical hydrolysis may prove valuable in the formulation of topical delivery systems.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: Pharmacy