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Title: The separation of secondary oil-water dispersions in particulate beds
Author: Ibrahim, Sabah Y.
ISNI:       0000 0004 2708 112X
Awarding Body: University of Aston in Birmingham
Current Institution: Aston University
Date of Award: 1986
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The literature relating to haze formation, methods of separation, coalescence mechanisms, and models by which droplets < 100 μm are collected, coalesced and transferred, have been reviewed with particular reference to particulate bed coalescers. The separation of secondary oil-water dispersions was studied experimentally using packed beds of monosized glass ballotini particles. The variables investigated were superficial velocity, bed depth, particle size, and the phase ratio and drop size distribution of inlet secondary dispersion. A modified pump loop was used to generate secondary dispersions of toluene or Clairsol 350 in water with phase ratios between 0.5-6.0 v/v%. Inlet drop size distributions were determined using a Malvern Particle Size Analyser;effluent, coalesced droplets were sized by photography. Single phase flow pressure drop data were correlated by means of a Carman-Kozeny type equation. Correlations were obtained relating single and two phase pressure drops, as (ΔP2/μc)/ΔP1/μd) = kp Ua Lb dcc dpd Cine A flow equation was derived to correlate the two phase pressure drop data as, ΔP2/(ρcU2) = 8.64*107 [dc/D]-0.27 [L/D]0.71 [dp/D]-0.17 [NRe]1.5 [e1]-0.14 [Cin]0.26  In a comparison between functions to characterise the inlet drop size distributions a modification of the Weibull function provided the best fit of experimental data. The general mean drop diameter was correlated by: q_p q_p p_q /β      Γ ((q-3/β) +1) d qp = d fr  .α        Γ ((P-3/β +1 The measured and predicted mean inlet drop diameters agreed within ±15%. Secondary dispersion separation depends largely upon drop capture within a bed. A theoretical analysis of drop capture mechanisms in this work indicated that indirect interception and London-van der Waal's mechanisms predominate. Mathematical models of dispersed phase concentration m the bed were developed by considering drop motion to be analogous to molecular diffusion. The number of possible channels in a bed was predicted from a model in which the pores comprised randomly-interconnected passage-ways between adjacent packing elements and axial flow occured in cylinders on an equilateral triangular pitch. An expression was derived for length of service channels in a queuing system leading to the prediction of filter coefficients. The insight provided into the mechanisms of drop collection and travel, and the correlations of operating parameters, should assist design of industrial particulate bed coalescers.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: Chemical Engineering