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Title: Computation of electromagnetic fields in assemblages of biological cells using a modified finite difference time domain scheme : computational electromagnetic methods using quasi-static approximate version of FDTD, modified Berenger absorbing boundary and Floquet periodic boundary conditions to investigate the phenomena in the interaction between EM fields and biological systems
Author: See, Chan Hwang
ISNI:       0000 0004 2707 2565
Awarding Body: University of Bradford
Current Institution: University of Bradford
Date of Award: 2007
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There is an increasing need for accurate models describing the electrical behaviour of individual biological cells exposed to electromagnetic fields. In this area of solving linear problem, the most frequently used technique for computing the EM field is the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method. When modelling objects that are small compared with the wavelength, for example biological cells at radio frequencies, the standard Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) method requires extremely small time-step sizes, which may lead to excessive computation times. The problem can be overcome by implementing a quasi-static approximate version of FDTD, based on transferring the working frequency to a higher frequency and scaling back to the frequency of interest after the field has been computed. An approach to modeling and analysis of biological cells, incorporating the Hodgkin and Huxley membrane model, is presented here. Since the external medium of the biological cell is lossy material, a modified Berenger absorbing boundary condition is used to truncate the computation grid. Linear assemblages of cells are investigated and then Floquet periodic boundary conditions are imposed to imitate the effect of periodic replication of the assemblages. Thus, the analysis of a large structure of cells is made more computationally efficient than the modeling of the entire structure. The total fields of the simulated structures are shown to give reasonable and stable results at 900MHz, 1800MHz and 2450MHz. This method will facilitate deeper investigation of the phenomena in the interaction between EM fields and biological systems. Moreover, the nonlinear response of biological cell exposed to a 0.9GHz signal was discussed on observing the second harmonic at 1.8GHz. In this, an electrical circuit model has been proposed to calibrate the performance of nonlinear RF energy conversion inside a high quality factor resonant cavity with known nonlinear device. Meanwhile, the first and second harmonic responses of the cavity due to the loading of the cavity with the lossy material will also be demonstrated. The results from proposed mathematical model, give good indication of the input power required to detect the weakly effects of the second harmonic signal prior to perform the measurement. Hence, this proposed mathematical model will assist to determine how sensitivity of the second harmonic signal can be detected by placing the required specific input power.
Supervisor: Abd-Alhameed, Raed A. Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Finite-Difference Time Domain (FDTD) ; Quasi-static method ; Floquet Periodic Boundary Conditions ; Perfect Matching Layers ; Computer modelling ; Biological cells ; Electromagnetic fields