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Title: Analysis of blood flow in patient-specific models of type B aortic dissection
Author: Cheng, Zhuo
ISNI:       0000 0004 2711 848X
Awarding Body: Imperial College London
Current Institution: Imperial College London
Date of Award: 2012
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Aortic dissection is the most common acute catastrophic event affecting the aorta. The majority of patients presenting with an uncomplicated type B dissection are treated medically, but 25% of these patients develop subsequent dilatation and aortic aneurysm formation. The reasons behind the long‐term outcomes of type B aortic dissection are poorly understood. As haemodynamic factors have been involved in the development and progression of a variety of cardiovascular diseases, the flow phenomena and environment in patient‐specific models of type B aortic dissection have been studied in this thesis by applying computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to in vivo data. The present study aims to gain more detailed knowledge of the links between morphology, flow characteristics and clinical outcomes in type B dissection patients. The thesis includes two parts of patient‐specific study: a multiple case cross‐sectional study and a single case longitudinal study. The multiple cases study involved a group of ten patients with classic type B aortic dissection with a focus on examining the flow characteristics as well as the role of morphological factors in determining the flow patterns and haemodynamic parameters. The single case study was based on a series of follow‐up scans of a patient who has a stable dissection, with an aim to identify the specified haemodynamic factors that are associated with the progression of aortic dissection. Both studies were carried out based on computed tomography images acquired from the patients. 4D Phase‐contrast magnetic resonance imaging was performed on a typical type B aortic dissection patient to provide detailed flow data for validation purpose. This was achieved by qualitative and quantitative comparisons of velocity‐encoded images with simulation results of the CFD model. The analysis of simulation results, including velocity, wall shear stress and turbulence intensity profiles, demonstrates certain correlations between the morphological features and haemodynamic factors, and also their effects on long‐term outcomes of type B aortic dissections. The simulation results were in good agreement with in vivo MR flow data in the patient‐specific validation case, giving credence to the application of the computational model to the study of flow conditions in aortic dissection. This study made an important contribution by identifying the role of certain morphological and haemodynamic factors in the development of type B aortic dissection, which may help provide a better guideline to assist surgeons in choosing optimal treatment protocol for individual patient.
Supervisor: Gibbs, Richard ; Xu, Xiao Sponsor: Institute of Biomedical Engineering ; National Heart and Lung Institute ; Royal Academy of Engineering
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral