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Title: Deposition and characterisation of bismuth layer-structured ferroelectric films
Author: Hu, Xiaobing
ISNI:       0000 0004 2707 5272
Awarding Body: University of Cambridge
Current Institution: University of Cambridge
Date of Award: 2006
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Bismuth layer-structured ferroelectrics have been recognised as promising film materials for ferroelectric random access memory application due to their excellent fatigue resistance and other electrical properties. This work deals with the deposition and characterisation of epitaxial and polycrystalline W-doped SrBi2Ta2O9 (SBT) and lanthanide-doped bismuth titanate (BiT) films. SBT and W-doped SBT films were fabricated by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on platinised silicon substrates. The effects of fabrication temperature and W-doping level on film properties were studied. The crystallinity of SBTW films improved with increasing fabrication temperatures, resulting in enhanced ferroelectric properties and dielectric properties above the fabrication temperature of 750 °C. Dense ceramic samples of Nd- and Sm-doped BiT (BNdT and BSmT) were successfully fabricated for PLD targets by solid state processing. Highly epitaxially (001)-, (118)-, and(104)-oriented Nd-doped bismuth titanate (BNdT) films were grown by PLD on (001)-, (011)-,and (111)-oriented SrTiO3 (STO) single crystal substrates, respectively. A three-dimensional orientation relationship between films and substrates was derived as: BNdT(001)//STO(001),BNdT[ 110 ]//STO[100]. Films showed strong dependence of structural and ferroelectric properties on the crystal orientation. PLD-grown BSmT films on platinised silicon substrates were studied as a function of fabrication temperature, effects of Pt bottom layer orientation, Sm doping level, and LaNiO3 buffer layer. An alkoxide-salt chemical solution deposition (CSD) method was adopted to prepare the precursors for BSmT (BNdT) film fabrication. Precursors of Bi-Sm(Nd)-Ti which were stable for at least eight months in air ambient were successfully developed. In-situ FT-IR studies suggest that acetic acid serves as chelating agent to improve the homogeneity of the precursor solution by generating a dense and homogeneous Ti-O-Ti polymeric network. The electrical properties of the films fabricated in this study (dielectric and ferroelectric properties, leakage current characteristics and electrical fatigue properties), are comparable or superior to these previously reported for similar films developed by other techniques or with other doping elements. Low temperature electrical properties of BSmT films suggest that the films are very promising for extremely low temperature nonvolatile memory applications. The results of BNdT films annealed at different oxygen partial pressure (O2, air, N2) showed that oxygen ambience affected structural properties of the films by enhancing the growth of perovskite phase (phase formation), increasing grain size (grain growth), and assisting the growth of (117)-oriented grains (crystallographic orientations). Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) was adopted to characterise BSmT films. Domain structures were clearly observed in a PLD-grown BSmT film, which were closely related to the grain structures. Domain manipulation was carried out in a CSD-derived BSmT film, showing that the film can be nearly uniformly polarised, which can be used in nanoscale device fabrication. Clear hysteresis loops were measured by PFM, which was an important proof of ferroelectricity. Large spatial variations of piezoelectric hysteresis loops of a CSD-derived BSmT film were observed across the film surface. Effective electrostriction coefficient (Qeff) of a PLD-grown BSmT film was measured, showing that BSmT films had better piezoelectric properties (higher Qeff, higher dzz) than SBT films, un-doped BiT ceramics and films. It suggests that BSmT films are promising piezoelectric materials for MEMS use.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: ferroelectric ; thin film