Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS:
Title: Crowd psychology and the policing of football crowds in England and Wales
Author: Hoggett, James Alec
ISNI:       0000 0004 2705 886X
Awarding Body: University of Liverpool
Current Institution: University of Liverpool
Date of Award: 2009
Availability of Full Text:
Access from EThOS:
This thesis has two primary objectives. The first is to explore the dynamics of any relationship that may exist between the psychological theories of the crowd that the police may hold and the public order practices they use to police football crowds in England and Wales. To address this objective the first three empirical chapters consist of an analysis of a questionnaire survey distributed to public order officers in England and Wales which addresses these issues, an exploration of public order police training to examine the impact that crowd theory may have in public order policing in terms of any theory/practice relationship and finally an examination of the dynamics of any theory/practice relationship within the operational context of the policing of a football match. The second objective is to assess developments made between the South Wales police, Cardiff City Football Club and Cardiff City supporters to combat issues of football disorder and explore the extent to which the Elaborated Social Identity Model (Reicher, 1996) can be used to explain how this approach may impact upon conflict reduction within this domain. Methodologically, this thesis adopts a pragmatic approach and uses primarily mixed method designs including questionnaires, ethnographic observations and semi structured and ad hoc interviews. This thesis identifies that the police in England and Wales hold a perception of football crowds that has much in common with classical psychological theories of the crowd (Le Bon and Allport) and that they also support the use of undifferentiated force against football crowds to prevent disorder occurring. Moreover, this thesis suggests that these classical psychological theories are institutionalised within public order training in England and Wales and serve both as a rationale and justification for the development of policing practice based primarily on force. Furthermore, this thesis suggests that because of this, in practice tactics which utilise force are explicitly built upon as good practice for the future. Finally, this thesis also identifies that the alternative approach developed at Cardiff City has been successful in terms of conflict and policing cost reduction.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available