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Title: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in endometrial cancer
Author: Nickkho-Amiry, Mahshid
ISNI:       0000 0004 2709 1918
Awarding Body: University of Manchester
Current Institution: University of Manchester
Date of Award: 2011
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Endometrial cancer is a common gynaecological cancer. Improving outcomes for women with advanced disease remains a challenge and there is also a need to develop preventative strategies in those women at highest risk of developing disease. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) comprise of a group of transcription factors belonging to the nuclear hormone receptor subfamily. PPAR sub-types are involved in metabolic homeostasis and have been implicated in malignancy, particularly breast and colo-rectal malignancies both of which are associated with obesity. Endometrial cancer is also closely associated with both obesity and insulin resistance. The work described in this thesis examined the expression of PPARs in endometrioid endometrial cancer and investigated their effects on key pathways implicated in this disease. Immunoblotting revealed over expression of PPARα and loss of PPARγ in human endometrioid endometrial cancer tissues. Pull-down assays also demonstrated differential selectivity of different PPARs for heterodimerisation with different isoforms of the RXR family of transcription factors. PPARα was localized to tumour cells and vascular endothelium and ELISA demonstrated an increase in VEGF-A in PPARα silenced cells suggesting that PPARα may promote tumour angiogenesis. PPARγ was largely seen in epithelial cells and also macrophages within benign endometrium. Reduction of PPARγ expression in cultured endometrial cells led to increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis. Loss of PPARγ was correlated with a loss of the tumour suppressor PTEN in endometrial tissues. Furthermore, PPARγ silencing led to diminished expression of PTEN and a concomitant increase in phosphorylated AKT suggesting that PPARγ is protective against deregulated growth within the endometrium. Synthetic PPAR-specific ligands reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis in endometrial cell lines. These effects were present in PPAR-silenced cells too although reduced in magnitude, indicating that the actions of specific PPAR ligands are mediated via both receptor dependent and receptor independent pathways.In conclusion, this work has demonstrated the differential expression of PPARs and RXRs in endometrial cancers and identified possible mechanisms, both direct and indirect, by which these may modulate endometrial cancer growth. Different PPAR family members may provide targets for therapeutic intervention in endometrial cancer care and require further study in this regard.
Supervisor: Holland, Catherine Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Endometrial Cancer ; Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors