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Title: Investigation of the feasibility of renewables in meeting the Moroccan primary energy demand
Author: Madomercandy, Remeche
Awarding Body: Edinburgh Napier University
Current Institution: Edinburgh Napier University
Date of Award: 2007
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Energy is undoubtedly the driving force at the core of the development of any nation. There is a direct relation between per capita income and energy consumption. The way this energy is produced, supplied and consumed, affects the local and global environment and is therefore a key issue in sustainable development. The Kingdom of Morocco which is not an oil-producing country is heavily dependent on imported energy to meet its energy demand. Morocco relies on imports for nearly 90 % of its hydrocarbon needs, with the total cost of its imports fluctuating between US$1 billion and US$1.5 billion per year. Electricity supplies are based largely on the combustion of imported coal, which is mainly obtained from South Africa, and imported crude oil from Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq and Nigeria, together with electricity imports from Spain and Algeria. This dependence has had an unusually large impact on its economy and environment, affecting foreign exchange, the national debt and government revenues and investment budgets according to the Moroccan Government. In Morocco, the renewable energy sources such as solar energy, wind energy, and biomass are plentiful, widely distributed and environmentally attractive. These resources add no net contributions to the atmospheric carbon dioxide and add no heat to the global environment. Levels of solar insolation exceed 5.00 kWhJm2/day on a horizontal plane in much of the country throughout much of the year, wind resources are favourable for both small scale and wind farm developments in some locations, hydro resources for micro applications are for the most part unexplored but likely to be available in the mountainous regions with good precipitation. Whilst bio-energy reserves are scarce throughout much of the arid and semi arid regions of the country, urban waste is abundant and offers good opportunity for processmg. The objective of this thesis is to investigate the feasibility of renewable energy sources in meeting Morocco's primary energy demand. In this thesis, the energy, electricity, environmental and renewable energy budget for Morocco against the global backdrop is discussed and the related institutional, implementation and policy frameworks including assessment of barriers are analysed. The thesis also addresses renewable energy resource assessment which is a prerequisite to undertake any meaningful exercise to integrate renewable energy technologies into rural energy plan within the overall national energy scenario in Morocco. Furthermore, a comprehensive and scientific model for all important renewable resources such as solar, wind, biomass and micro-hydro throughout the country has been developed, which is a starting point for all future initiatives including private sector participation and market development in this sector. The proposed renewable energy plan could set Morocco on the path to a sustainable energy system with associated economic benefits setting a model for other African and developing countries to follow. The plan clearly contributes to the envisaged purpose of increasing renewable energy contribution in the primary energy balance bringing significant social and environmental benefits into the process. Plentiful wind and solar radiation resources and the proximity to Europe put Morocco in a strong position. Import of technology from and export of electricity to Europe could become a promlSlng strategy to limit the global greenhouse effect and to boost the Moroccan economy.
Supervisor: Muneer, Tariq Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: HD Industries. Land use. Labor