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Title: Chemical current-conveyor : a new approach in biochemical computation
Author: Pookaiyaudom, Panavy
ISNI:       0000 0004 2707 2696
Awarding Body: Imperial College London
Current Institution: Imperial College London
Date of Award: 2011
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Biochemical sensors that are low cost, small in size and compatible with integrated circuit technology play an essential part in the drive towards personalised healthcare and the research described in this thesis is concerned with this area of medical instrumentation. A new biochemical measurement system able to sense key properties of biochemical fluids is presented. This new integrated circuit biochemical sensor, called the Chemical Current-Conveyor, uses the ion sensitive field effect transistor as the input sensor combined with the current-conveyor, an analog building-block, to produce a range of measurement systems. The concept of the Chemical Current-Conveyor is presented together with the design and subsequent fabrication of a demonstrator integrated circuit built on conventional 0.35μm CMOS silicon technology. The silicon area of the Chemical Current-Conveyor is (92μm x 172μm) for the N-channel version and (99μm x 165μm) for the P-channel version. Power consumption for the N-channel version is 30μW and 43μW for the P-channel version with a full load of 1MΩ. The maximum sensitivity achieved for pH measurement was 46mV per pH. The potential of the Chemical Current Conveyor as a versatile biochemical integrated circuit, able to produce output information in an appropriate form for direct clinical use has been confirmed by applications including measurement of (i) pH, (ii) buffer index ( ), (iii) urea, (iv) creatinine and (v) urea:creatinine ratio. In all five cases the device has been demonstrated successfully, confirming the validity of the original aim of this research project, namely to produce a versatile and flexible analog circuit for many biochemical measurement applications. Finally, the thesis closes with discussion of another potential application area for the Chemical Current Conveyor and the main contributions can be summarised by the design and development of the first: ISFET based current-conveyor biochemical sensor, called 'Chemical Current Conveyor, CCCII+' has been designed and developed. It is a general purpose biochemical analog building-block for several biochemical measurements. Real-time buffer capacity measurement system, based on the CCCII+, which exploits the imbedded analog computation capability of the CCCII+. Real-time enzyme based CCCII+ namely, Creatinine-CCCII+ and Urea-CCCII+ for real-time monitoring system of renal system. The system can provide outputs of 3 important parameters of the renal system, namely (i) urea concentration, (ii) creatinine concentration, and (ii) urea to creatinine ratio.
Supervisor: Toumazou, Christofer Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral