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Title: Pharmaceutical co-crystals : combining thermal microscopy and phase space considerations to facilitate the growth of novel phases
Author: Berry, David J.
ISNI:       0000 0004 2703 4323
Awarding Body: University of Bradford
Current Institution: University of Bradford
Date of Award: 2009
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The crystalline solid state is invaluable to both the pharmaceutical and fine chemical sectors. The advantages primarily relate to reducibility criteria required during processing of stable solid state materials and delivering purification, which is inherently performed by the crystal growth process. A major challenge is achieving control through crystallising solids with the desired physico-chemical properties. If this can be achieved the crystalline solid is of great financial and practical benefit. One emerging methodology for manipulating the solid crystalline form is the application of co-crystals. This work relates to key steps in the understanding of rational design of co-crystals utilizing crystal engineering concepts to determine systems before then applying screening criteria to the selected sub-set. Co-crystal screening is routinely undertaken using high-throughput solution growth. We report a low- to medium-throughput approach, encompassing both a melt and solution crystallization step as a route to the identification of co-crystals. Prior to solution studies, a melt growth step was included utilizing the Kofler mixed fusion method. This method allowed elucidation of the thermodynamic landscape within the binary phase diagram and was found to increase overall screening efficiency. This led to the discovery of a number of co-crystal systems with the co-former nicotinamide, with the single crystal structures determined for the following systems; R/S ibuprofen: nicotinamide, S ibuprofen: nicotinamide, R/S flurbiprofen: nicotinamide and salicylic acid: nicotinamide. To assess the crystallization and phase behaviours of determined co-crystals the R/S ibuprofennicotinamide system was selected and successful studies were undertaken determining the aqueous ternary phase behavior and the pre-nucleation speciation in methanol. There have, as yet, been a limited number of published examples which are concerned with pharmaceutical property enhancement by co-crystals, as vast proportion of the literature concerns the growth and isolation of these novel phases. To elucidate further the pharmaceutical relevance of co-crystals the properties of the R/S ibuprofen- nicotinamide system were then assessed showing a positive profile for this material.
Supervisor: Blagden, Nicholas ; Storey, Richard Sponsor: AstraZeneca and the University of Bradford
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Pharmaceutical ; Co-crystals ; Design ; Thermal ; Microscopy ; Screening ; Nicotinamide ; Ibuprofen ; Crystal engineering