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Title: Female teachers' and girls' access to primary schools in rural areas of Pakistan : a case study
Author: Khalid, Humala Shaheen
ISNI:       0000 0004 2705 8819
Awarding Body: Institute of Education, University of London
Current Institution: University College London (University of London)
Date of Award: 1996
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This thesis examines girls' and female teachers' access to primary schools, focusing on female teachers' constraints while serving in rural areas. Boys' primary schools are not accessible to girls because of parental demands for female teachers. The conceptual framework has been developed using concepts from three major areas: the human capital concept of investment in education and significance of social rates of return for educating women; the perspectives of feminist theory on gender inequalities in education with regard to patriarchal structures in society; and the Women in Development (WID) approach advocating gender equity and recognition of women's economic contribution to their families and societies. Literature on the importance of female teachers in sex-segregated Muslim societies and girls' educational access is reviewed. Using Khan's (1993) classification of family, community and school factors, a model to classify female teachers' problems has been developed. The broad research questions are: a) what are the existing disparities in the provision of education facilities for girls and boys in urban and rural areas? b) what are the problems faced by female and male teachers working in primary schools of rural areas? c) what are the views of parents, teachers, administrators and policy makers on the education of girls and boys in rural areas? Both qualitative and quantitative approaches are employed. A documentary analysis of constitutional, education policy provisions and opportunities for girls' education is undertaken. Teachers, administrators and policy makers are interviewed. Parents participate in focus group discussions. Analysis shows that parents want to educate their daughters but the education of sons becomes more important because of the old-age benefits linked to a son's future income. Travelling to rural schools involves threats to the personal security of female teachers resulting in their frequent transfers. Girls' schools remain closed until new teachers are appointed. Long distances create problems of personal security for girls, female teachers and administrators, resulting in teachers' irregular attendance and poor supervision of girls' rural schools. The problem is further compounded by the unjustified favours of politicians and the monopoly of male staff in the District Education Offices.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available