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Title: A comparative study of some aspects of the educational systems of England and the Republic of China
Author: Lin , Ching-Jiang
ISNI:       0000 0004 2703 9116
Awarding Body: University of Liverpool
Current Institution: University of Liverpool
Date of Award: 1968
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PROpLE~: The purpose of this study is to provide some bases for educational reforms in Taiwan through a comparative approaCh. Some comparative aspects of the educational systems of England and the Republic of China are studied to (1) trace the approaches to educational developments, (2) to investigate bases for suocessful implementation of raising the school leaving age, (3) describe efficient machinery and process of technical and vocational education, (4) consider ma1n lines of adaptation to university expansion, (5) deduce efficient ap~roaches to the reorganisation of teacher education, and (6) Compare trends in adult education. Emphasis has been placed on machinery, process and philosophy for solving some educational problems in Taiwan. t~THODOLOGY: The study is based on the conceptual framework that a COherent educational system should be proposed to reduce the gap between sooial reality, ideology and educational pattern in the incessant process of social chanse• ';t'wo functions of education have been concurrently stressed: the adjustment ~f the educational system to social ohange and its leading the change in the desired direction. The educational problem is regarded as a social problem caused by social disorganisation, value-oonflicting and social lag. The comparative procedures are, first, to describe relevant factors of an educational problemi second, to trace changins ideas in relation to the problem; third, to analyze EnSlish solutions to the problem; and finally, to consider possible solutions to the similar problem in the Chinese educational system.The sources of information of this study are three: direct observation, investigation of primary documents and secondary materials, and consultation. These sources of information are used in developmental studies, survey studies, and'inter-relationship comparisons. FINDINGS: This comparative study indicates that (1) a critical tradition of educational development based on international knowledge and national cultural goals is now being developed in both systems; (2) orientation, guidance and comprehensivenessare common features of the two systems of secondary education for all, and the organic connection of dif~ fe2'1Jnt schools or educational institutions is a key to the success of raising the school leaving age; (3) there are many comparatively efficient mechanisms of technical and vocational education in the English system; (4) a balance of university functions in relation to researoh versus teaching, specialisation versus general studies, internal coherence versus external leadership, is the pre-requ~site of developing an efreetty. un!vcrsi ty system in the process of expansion; (5) a unified administrative organisation, a synthesized training content, a reBearch~orientated teaching profession, and a liberal training of teachers of teohnical and vocational education are conditions for a successful reorganisation of t~aohe~ education; and (6) adult education should shift from its makeshift status to independent function. RECOMMENDATIONS: The following tools for decision are presented acoording to the findings of this comparative study: 1. Objectives of remaking the educational system are general .. ised as (a) the orientation of the educational system to.. wards a balance of the supply and the demand of manpower; (b) the maintenance of an equilibrium between the funotion of adjustment to material progress and the function of improving social organisation and re-building social norms; (c) the encouragement of material and social inventions required for innovations; (d) the linking of educational effects and social action; (e) the achievement of political ideals. 2. The social factor should be taken into account in dividing the school districts for national middle schools. And organic connections should be made to link national middle schools to other educational institutions, including vocational schools, senior high schools, vocational junior col:egea, continuation education, and the youth service. 3. Machinery of vocational education should be improved in relation to a nation-wide integrated system of vocational training and employment security, possible methods of integrating practical training and formal instruction, the establishment of technical paper qualifications, and a substantial increase of·opportunities for further studies in technical and vocational education. Concurrent with these improvements, thare should be renewal of the process of technical and vocational education with special emphasis on relating individual knowledge to social reality in the emerging industrial democracy. 4. The priority of university adjustment is the mutual facilitation of research and teaching through the expansion of gr~duate studios and the fundamental reform of teaching methods. 5. Efforts have to be made in teacher education to abandon the rigid distinction between different institutions, to throw overboard the normal school tradition in normal junior colleges, to balance ingredients of training content to maintain the rhythm of theoretical studies and practical training, to stress social leadership edudation, and to avoid the inertia of the teaching profession,' 6. It is necessary in social education to shift the 'protected' university extra-mural teaching to the status of normal university activity, to strengthen labour education through a concerted approach, and to unify social education services. 7. The following further researches are needed to provide relevant information connected with references offered by this study: (a) a study of the family influences of education in relation to guidance from school life to vocation; (b) a study of educational functions of vocational groups; (c) a study of school-community relationships; (d) a study of university traditions using both the historical and the comparative approach; (e) a study of the role of teachers in different educational institutions; (f) a study of the methodology of social education.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available