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Title: Understanding the complexities of smoking and quitting during pregnancy : an examination of the psychological determinants and attitudes
Author: Ingall, Georgina Ruth
ISNI:       0000 0004 2700 9224
Awarding Body: University of Surrey
Current Institution: University of Surrey
Date of Award: 2011
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The aim of this thesis was to examine the psychological determinants and attitudes involved in smoking and cessation. This thesis has conducted a systematic review and four studies which demonstrated triangulation of findings. Study (1), two focus groups were undertaken to explore smoking and quitting in pregnancy. Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) three super and seven subordinate themes were identified. The findings illustrated that pregnant smokers used smoking to cope with emotional situations and illustrated that the first pregnancy was considered the most influential in modifying smoking behaviours. Study (2), semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore psychological barriers to quitting smoking and using IPA, five super and 17 subordinate themes were identified. Findings demonstrated barriers to quitting were: low levels of willpower, inability to re-motivate quit and not personalizing smoking risks. Successful quitters possessed: high levels of determination, flexible coping strategies, and sought external support. Additionally, two specific attitudes emerged: mental separation and feeling superior at quitting not previously cited in research. Study (3), a study to devise an attitude scale that explored pregnant women’s attitudes towards smoking in pregnancy was conducted. Through exploratory factor analysis five factors that constructed attitude were identified: judgmental beliefs, justification of smoking, perceptions of quitting, the meaning of smoking and the effects of smoking. Study (4), a study was conducted on attitudes towards smoking in pregnancy at the dating scan. The findings demonstrated that non-smokers and quitters held a more moralistic view of smoking during pregnancy than smokers. The scan affected smokers’ attitude of perceptions of quitting, unexpectedly showing that following the scan pregnant smokers perceived quitting as easier. A small number of smokers changed readiness to quit. Recommendations and suggestions for future research are given.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available