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Title: NMR studies of the structure of a conserved RNA motif of 23S ribosomal RNA and its interaction with peptidyl transferase antibiotics
Author: King, John
ISNI:       0000 0004 2703 3507
Awarding Body: University of Manchester
Current Institution: University of Manchester
Date of Award: 2011
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In this project a number of peptidyl transferase antibiotics were studied, specifically a group of aminohexose cytosine nucleoside antibiotics and their interaction with a selected number of highly conserved ribonucleic acid (RNA) motifs, designed to represent their possible binding site within the ribosome. This group of antibiotics shows a wide range of interesting properties, including antiviral and anti-tumour activity, and as they bind to a particularly conserved region in the ribosome, they are likely to be difficult for microorganisms to develop resistance to. It is hoped that once the mechanism of action of these antibiotics is better understood, that modifications to the antibiotics can be effectively made to create new or hybrid antibiotics with more selective antibacterial, or indeed antiviral or anti-tumour properties. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of the RNA binding, peptidyl tranferase inhibitor antibiotics amicetin, blasticidin S and gougerotin, in their native solution states, have been successfully determined. The structures all exhibit a stable conformation, stabilised by intramolecular hydrogen bonds. Amicetin was observed to be folded, distinctly different from the linear, extended conformation of amicetin previously determined by X-ray crystallography. The structure of blasticidin S was found to be very similar to its X-ray crystal structure. Gougerotin was shown to form a similar conformation to blasticidin S, save that the end chain of gougerotin was bent at right angles to the rest of the molecule, forming a structure similar to that of the major bound X-ray crystal structure of blasticidin S. All the solution structures showed a similar conformation in the analogous regions of their chemical structure, suggesting that hybrid antibiotics could be produced.Two highly conserved RNA motifs of Halobacterium halobium (H. h.) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) 23S ribosomal RNAs were chosen to investigate their interaction with amicetin. The NMR structure of the H. h. and E. coli. 29-mer RNA motifs have been determined; the motifs both form well folded A-form RNA conformations. The E. coli NMR structure differs from the X-ray crystal structure of the motif contained within the ribosome, as a highly conserved adenine residue, which resides in a bulge strongly implicated with amicetin binding, folds into the helix as opposed to being flipped out. Instead, an adjacent cytosine residue partially flips out; whereas in the crystal structure, it is folded within the helix. The NMR stuctures of the H. h. motif differs from the X-ray crystal structure of the motif, contained within the ribosome, as none of the bases are flipped out and a number of non-canonical base pairs are formed in the solution structure. To continue this study, a fully 13C and 15N isotopically labelled version of the H. h. RNA sample has been partially assigned, and an initial structure determination has been performed, using ultra high field 1 GHz spectroscopy.Addition of amicetin to both the H. h. and E. coli 29-mer RNA samples were accompanied by discrete changes to the spectra, suggesting weak interaction between the two components. These can be qualitatively interpreted to changes induced in the local conformation of the RNA motifs and the amicetin arising from the formation of a complex, between the amicetin and the bulge region of the particular motif.
Supervisor: Ramesh, Vasudevan Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: NMR ; Antibiotic ; Blasticidin S ; Amicetin ; Gougerotin ; peptidyl transferase ; PTC ; RNA ; 1 GHz ; ribosome ; Structure determination