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Title: 3D tomographic imaging using ad hoc and mobile sensors
Author: Chin, Renee Ka Yin
ISNI:       0000 0004 2702 8679
Awarding Body: University of Manchester
Current Institution: University of Manchester
Date of Award: 2011
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The aim of this research is to explore the integration of ad hoc and mobile sensors into a conventional Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) system. This is motivated by the desire to improve the spatial resolution of 3D reconstructed images that are produced using ERT. The feasibility of two approaches, referred to as the Extended Electrical Tomography (EET) and Augmented Electrical Tomography (AET) are considered. The approaches are characterized according to the functionality of the sensors on the ad hoc 'pills'. This thesis utilizes spectral and numerical analysis techniques, with the goal of providing a better understanding of reconstruction limitations, including quality of measurements, sensitivity levels and spatial resolution. These techniques are applied such that an objective evaluation can be made, without having to depend heavily on visual inspection of a selection of reconstructed images when evaluating the performance of different set-ups. In EET, the sensors on the pills are used as part of the ERT electrode system. Localized voltage differences are measured on a pair of electrodes that are located on an ad hoc pill. This extends the number of measurements per data set and provides information that was previously unobtainable using conventional electrode arrangements. A standalone voltage measurement system is used to acquire measurements that are taken using the internal electrodes. The system mimics the situation that is envisaged for a wireless pill, specifically that it has a floating ground and is battery-powered. For the present exploratory purposes, the electronic hardware is located remotely and the measured signal is transmitted to the PC through a cable. The instrumentation and data acquisition circuits are separated through opto-isolators which essentially isolates both systems. Using a single pill located in the centre of a vessel furnished with 16 electrodes arranged in a single plane, spectral analysis indicates that 15 of the 16 extended measurements acquired using the adjacent current injection strategy are unique. Improvement is observed for both the sensitivity and spatial resolution for the voxels in the vicinity of the ad hoc pill when comparing the EET approach with the conventional ERT approach. This shows the benefit of the EET approach. However, visual inspection of reconstructed images reveals no apparent difference between images produced using a regular and extended dataset. Similar studies are conducted for cases considering the opposite strategy, different position and orientation of the pill, and the effect of using multiple pills. In AET, the sensors on the ad hoc pills are used as conductivity probes. Localized conductivity measurements provide conductivity values of the voxels in a discretized mesh of the vessel, which reduces the number of unknowns to be solved during reconstruction. The measurements are incorporated into the inverse solver as prior information. The Gauss-Newton algorithm is chosen for implementation of this approach because of its non-linear nature. Little improvement is seen with the inclusion of one localized conductivity measurement. The effect on the neighbouring voxels is insignificant and there is a lack of control over how the augmented measurement influences the solution of its neighbouring voxels. This is the first time that measurements using ad hoc and 'wireless' sensors within the region of interest have been incorporated into an electrical tomography system.
Supervisor: York, Trevor Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: electrical resistance tomographic ; process imaging ; spatial resolution ; unconventional electrode arrangement ; image reconstruction