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Title: An investigation of leadership styles and their effect on organizational climate and organizational commitment : a case of the Pakistani knitwear industry
Author: Iqbal, Adnan
ISNI:       0000 0004 2696 4377
Awarding Body: The University of Manchester
Current Institution: University of Manchester
Date of Award: 2006
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This mixed method study investigated the relationship among leadership styles, the dimensions of organizational climate and organizational commitment in the Pakistani knitwear industry. The knitwear industry was chosen because of two reasons 1) highly labour intensive; and 2) suitable to test the three variables (leadership styles, organizational climate and organizational commitment), which are entirely employee related concepts. The quantitative data was collected from the 100 organizations in Lahore and Faisalabad. Five set of questionnaire per organization were distributed to get the perceived leadership styles, organizational climate and employees' commitment. Leadership styles were measured by Leader Behaviour Description Questionnaire (Ll3DQ), organizational climate was measured by Situational Outlook Questionnaire and employees' commitment was measured by Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ). Of the 415 questionnaires 365 were found to be valid, which is a useable response rate of 74%. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS (v. 13). The results of the data showed statistically significant correlations between leadership styles, organizational climate and employees' commitment. This study explored that currently top management exercises initiating structure style in their organizations while literature has highlighted that consideration style of leadership is most favourable and influential style of leadership on organizational climate and employees' commitment. Therefore it is suggested that CEOs/top-management in knitwear industry should change their management style. This study also highlighted a significant relationship between consideration style of leadership and organizational climate. A significant relationship also occurred between Initiating structure style and organizational commitment. Series of ANOVAs with post hoc tests were computed to investigate where there were differences across the three job categories (managers, supervisors and workers) on leadership styles, dimensions of organizational climate and organizational commitment. The results of these tests indicated that there were statistically significant differences in perceived leadership style, organizational climate and employees' commitment among the three job category of employees. The qualitative data was collected through 20 semi-structured interviews from CEOs and senior official, who were working, in the Pakistan Hosiery Manufacturing Association (PHMA) and also managing their knitwear concerns. Interviews revealed that the sample organizations are found to be undergoing a management shift from traditional `Bossy' style to participative and considerate style of leadership. This is the first study on employee related issues in the Pakistani knitwear industry, therefore, will have strong implications for the literature of Leadership styles and organizational commitment in developing countries. The recommendations gained from this study will help to understand the critical issues of employee development at the workplace. This may results in improving the working environment and productivity in the organization.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available