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Title: High fidelity readout of trapped ion qubits
Author: Burrell, Alice Heather
ISNI:       0000 0004 2695 7046
Awarding Body: University of Oxford
Current Institution: University of Oxford
Date of Award: 2010
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This thesis describes experimental demonstrations of high-fidelity readout of trapped ion quantum bits ("qubits") for quantum information processing. We present direct single-shot measurement of an "optical" qubit stored in a single calcium-40 ion by the process of resonance fluorescence with a fidelity of 99.991(1)% (surpassing the level necessary for fault-tolerant quantum computation). A time-resolved maximum likelihood method is used to discriminate efficiently between the two qubit states based on photon-counting information, even in the presence of qubit decay from one state to the other. It also screens out errors due to cosmic ray events in the detector, a phenomenon investigated in this work. An adaptive method allows the 99.99% level to be reached in 145us average detection time. The readout fidelity is asymmetric: 99.9998% is possible for the "bright" qubit state, while retaining 99.98% for the "dark" state. This asymmetry could be exploited in quantum error correction (by encoding the "no-error" syndrome of the ancilla qubits in the "bright" state), as could the likelihood values computed (which quantify confidence in the measurement outcome). We then extend the work to parallel readout of a four-ion string using a CCD camera and achieve the same 99.99% net fidelity, limited by qubit decay in the 400us exposure time. The behaviour of the camera is characterised by fitting experimental data with a model. The additional readout error due to cross-talk between ion images on the CCD is measured in an experiment designed to remove the effect of qubit decay; a spatial maximum likelihood technique is used to reduce this error to only 0.2(1)x10^{-4} per qubit, despite the presence of ~4% optical cross-talk between neighbouring qubits. Studies of the cross-talk indicate that the readout method would scale with negligible loss of fidelity to parallel readout of ~10,000 qubits with a readout time of ~3us per qubit. Monte-Carlo simulations of the readout process are presented for comparison with experimental data; these are also used to explore the parameter space associated with fluorescence detection and to optimise experimental and analysis parameters. Applications of the analysis methods to readout of other atomic and solid-state qubits are discussed.
Supervisor: Lucas, David M. Sponsor: EU MicroTrap
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Atomic and laser physics ; Quantum information processing ; Physics ; quantum information ; quantum computation ; quantum computing ; trapped ions ; ion trap ; readout ; measurement ; qubit