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Title: Sound propagation in an urban environment
Author: Hewett, David Peter
ISNI:       0000 0004 2695 5411
Awarding Body: University of Oxford
Current Institution: University of Oxford
Date of Award: 2010
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This thesis concerns the modelling of sound propagation in an urban environment. For most of the thesis a point source of sound source is assumed, and both 2D and 3D geometries are considered. Buildings are modelled as rigid blocks, with the effects of surface inhomogeneities neglected. In the time-harmonic case, assuming that the wavelength is short compared to typical lengthscales of the domain (street widths and lengths), ray theory is used to derive estimates for the time-averaged acoustic power flows through a network of interconnecting streets in the form of integrals over ray angles. In the impulsive case, the propagation of wave-field singularities in the presence of obstacles is considered, and a general principle concerning the weakening of singularities when they are diffracted by edges and vertices is proposed. The problem of switching on a time-harmonic source is also studied, and an exact solution for the diffraction of a switched on plane wave by a rigid half-line is obtained and analysed. The pulse diffraction theory is then applied in a study of the inverse problem for an impulsive source, where the aim is to locate an unknown source using Time Differences Of Arrival (TDOA) at multiple receivers. By using reflected and diffracted pulse arrivals, the standard free-space TDOA method is extended to urban environments. In particular, approximate source localisation is found to be possible even when the exact building distribution is unknown.
Supervisor: Ockendon, J. R. ; Allwright, D. J. ; Williams, D. P. Sponsor: EPSRC ; Dstl
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Mathematics ; Fluid mechanics (mathematics) ; Partial differential equations ; acoustics ; source localisation