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Title: Quantitative laser diagnostics for combustion
Author: Williams, Benjamin Ashley Oliver
ISNI:       0000 0004 2692 4324
Awarding Body: University of Oxford
Current Institution: University of Oxford
Date of Award: 2009
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Quantitative Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (QPLIF) is developed as a diagnostic technique and then applied to a prototype Jaguar optical internal combustion engine. QPLIF derives quantitative, two-dimensional, spatially-resolved measurements of fuel concentration. This work reports the first demonstration of a fully-fractionated surrogate fuel which exhibits all the characteristics of a typical gasoline. This 'pseudo' fuel, developed in association with Shell UK, is blended to accept a fluorescent tracer which may track one of the light, middle or heavy fractions of the fuel, each of different volatility. The traditional weaknesses of PLIF for quantitative measurements are addressed by use of a fired in-situ calibration method, which maps the quantum efficiency of the tracer and concurrently corrects for window fouling and exhaust gas residuals (EGR). Fuel distributions are presented with an estimated super-pixel accuracy of 10% at different operating conditions, and then compared to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) predictions of an in-house Jaguar model. Fuel/Air Ratios by Laser Induced thermal Gratings (FARLIG) is developed theoretically, and results of validation experiments conducted in a laboratory setting are reported. FARLIG conceptually enables the measurement of fuel concentration, oxygen concentration and temperature within a spatially-localised probe volume. Uniquely, the technique exploits the dominant influence of molecular oxygen on non-radiative quenching processes in an aromatic tracer molecule. The changing character of a model quenching mechanism potentially allows the oxygen concentration in the measurement volume to be derived. Absolute signal strength is used to determine fuel concentration, while the oscillation period of the signal provides a precise measurement of temperature (~0.3% uncertainty), with accuracy limited by knowledge of the gas composition.
Supervisor: Ewart, Paul Sponsor: Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council ; Jaguar Cars UK
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Atomic and laser physics ; Mechanical engineering ; laser ; diagnostic ; optical ; quantitative ; air/fuel ratio ; IC engine ; fluorescence ; thermal grating ; fuel distribution ; stratification ; cyclic variability ; modelling