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Title: Robust low power CMOS methodologies for ISFETs instrumentation
Author: Chan, Wai Pan
ISNI:       0000 0004 2691 6586
Awarding Body: Imperial College London
Current Institution: Imperial College London
Date of Award: 2010
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I have developed a robust design methodology in a 0.18 [Mu]m commercial CMOS process to circumvent the performance issues of the integrated Ions Sensitive Field Effect Transistor (ISFET) for pH detection. In circuit design, I have developed frequency domain signal processing, which transforms pH information into a frequency modulated signal. The frequency modulated signal is subsequently digitized and encoded into a bit-stream of data. The architecture of the instrumentation system consists of a) A novel front-end averaging amplifier to interface an array of ISFETs for converting pH into a voltage signal, b) A high linear voltage controlled oscillator for converting the voltage signal into a frequency modulated signal, and c) Digital gates for digitizing and differentiating the frequency modulated signal into an output bit-stream. The output bit stream is indistinguishable to a 1st order sigma delta modulation, whose noise floor is shaped by +20dB/decade. The fabricated instrumentation system has a dimension of 1565 [Mu] m 1565 [Mu] m. The chip responds linearly to the pH in a chemical solution and produces a digital output, with up to an 8-bit accuracy. Most importantly, the fabricated chips do not need any post-CMOS processing for neutralizing any trapped-charged effect, which can modulate on-chip ISFETs’ threshold voltages into atypical values. As compared to other ISFET-related works in the literature, the instrumentation system proposed in this thesis can cope with the mismatched ISFETs on chip for analogue-to-digital conversions. The design methodology is thus very accurate and robust for chemical sensing.
Supervisor: Toumazou, Christofer Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral