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Title: Structure activity relationships of bisphosphonate analogues
Author: Stewart, Charlotte
ISNI:       0000 0004 2690 098X
Awarding Body: University of Aberdeen
Current Institution: University of Aberdeen
Date of Award: 2010
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The nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (NBPs) are the most widely used treatment for diseases involving excessive osteoclastic bone resorption, such as osteoporosis. The clinical efficacy of NBPs is due in large part to their affinity for bone mineral, but it has been suggested that lowering affinity may have benefits due to altered distribution and duration of action possibly allowing direct anti-tumour effects. In addition, the phosphonocarboxylate (PC) analogues inhibit prenylation more selectively through a different enzyme target, Rab geranylgeranyl transferase (RGGT), which may offer additional benefits by reducing side-effects associated with farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) inhibition. Using fluorescent analogues of PCs and NBPs demonstrated that mineral affinity not only affects initial bone-binding, but also influences desorption, reattachment and penetration at the bone surface, suggesting that lower affinity compounds have lower retention and increased access to other cell types, such as tumour cells. The work presented aimed to investigate the potential of low affinity analogues by characterising their intracellular potency for inhibiting their target enzymes. The results showed that modification to the phosphonate groups to produce phosphonoalkylphosphinate analogues reduced potency for inhibiting FPPS. By contrast, removal of one of the phosphonate groups to give a monophosphonate changed the target enzyme to RGGT. Modifications to the R1 side-chain (substituting with hydrogen or a halogen) of both NBPs and PCs were studied and showed contrasting results, modifications to the R1 side-chain of NBPs affect their ability to inhibit FPPS whereas the same modification to PCs is insignificant for inhibiting RGGT. This showed the distinction between the structural requirements for inhibition of RGGT and FPPS and furthers the understanding of the structure-activity relationships of both NBPs and PCs which could guide future drug design. Within this thesis the most potent inhibitor of RGGT to date, 3-IPEHPC, was characterised which in addition to having therapeutic potential may be used as tool to investigate the importance of Rab prenylation for cellular function.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Bone Diseases ; Diphosphonates ; Bone resorption